Due to advances in technology, highly sophisticated weapons are now available for use in wars. These can kill and disable large numbers of people. Wars also bring about widespread destruction, disrupt communication and hamper trade.
Thus, they cause heavy financial loss and great suffering to people. Besides, the effects of wars often affect countries that are not involved.
The mere threat of war can force a country to spend huge amounts of money on defence instead of spending on developmental works such as the building of roads, dams, hospitals, schools, and so on. This can slow down the country’s development.
Some countries try to achieve political aims by using terrorism as a weapon against other countries. Terrorism involves spreading fear among civilians through acts of violence such as mass killings, taking hostages, etc. It has now become a worldwide menace.
Since attaining independence in 1947, India has had to fight wars against neighbouring Pakistan (1947-1949, 1965 and 1971) and China (1962). India has also been troubled by terrorists supported by Pakistan, and intrusions into India by Pakistani militants led to a conflict in the Kargil region of Jammu and Kashmir in 1999.