Essay on Some Important Chemical Properties of Soil | Essay

Inorganic Elements and Compounds of Soil:

The chief inorganic constituents of soil are the compounds of following elements—Al, Si, Ca, Mg, Fe, K and Na. Soil also con­tains smaller amounts of compounds of following inorganic ele­ments—B, Mn, Cu, Zn, Mo, Co, I, F, etc. Most of these inorganic salts exist in soil in the form of weak solution. Soil solution may contain complex mixtures of minerals as carbonates, sulphates, nitrates, chlorides and also organic salts of calcium, magnesium, sodium, potassium, etc.

The chemical nature of nutrient solution depends on the nature of the parent matter through which water has percolated and climatic conditions of the region and it affects the types of vegetation of that region. For example, temperate soils with high rainfall has H ions in abundance, due to which leaching of basic nutrient ions like Ca, Mg and K occurs and fertility of soil is greatly reduced.

Soils with suboptimal concentration of nutrients are called oligotrophic and those with more or less opti­mal concentrations of nutrient solutes as eutrophic. The oligotro­phic soils cause many physiological disorders in plants which have very poor root system and fruiting. To compensate the efficiency of nutrients, fertilizers containing N, P and K salts are added to such soils.

Organic Matter of Soil:

The chief organic component of soil is humus which chemically contains —amino acids, proteins, purines, pyrimidines, aromatic compounds, hexose sugars, sugar alcohols, methyl sugars, fats, oils, waxes, resins, tannins, lignin and some pigments. Further, humus is black coloured, odourless, homogeneous complex substance.

Colloidal Properties:

As soil is composed of crystalloids and colloids, therefore, it exhibits all the physico-chemical properties which are related with these two soil particles. Colloids for example exhibit absorption, electrical properties, coagulation, Tyndal phenomenon, Brownian movement, dialysis, etc.

Soil pH:

Many chemical properties of soils centre on soil reaction. As regards their nature, some soils are neutral, some are acidic and some basic. The acidity, alkalinity and neutrality of soils are des­cribed in terms of hydrogen-ion concentrations or pH values.

A pH value of 7. 0 indicates neutrality indicates alkaline condition and a value below (0—6. 9) indicates acid conditions. Normally, pH value of soils lies between 2-2 and 96. Surface soils are more acidic. Warm, dry climate soils are strongly basic. In India, acidic soils (pH below 5.5 to 5.6) occur in the high rainfall areas of Western Ghats, Kerala, Eastern Orissa, West Bengal, and Tripura.

Manipur and Assam the saline, alkali or basic soils (called ‘Usarcontain pH upto 8.5) of India, occur in U. P., West Bengal, Punjab, Bihar, Orissa, Maharashtra, Madras, M. P., A. P., Gujrat, Delhi and Rajasthan.

pH value of soil controls the concentration and availability of other minerals also. For example, certain plants require consi­derable amounts of calcium (calciphytes) and thus grow on basic soils. Plants requiring low calcium amounts are called oxylophytes. At low pH, generally copper, iron, zinc, manganese and aluminium become toxic. Highly acidic and highly saline or alkaline soils are often injurious for plant growth and micro-organisms, etc. Neutral or slightly acidic soil, however, is best for the growth of majority of plants.

Suit for an Account by Agent Against Principal

2. The plaintiff was appointed by the defendant as the sole agent for the sale of books within the State of Andhra Pradesh by virtue of written agreement dated 14.3.1992. The same is filed along with the plaint.

3. The terms of the agreement dated 14.3.1992 between the plaintiff and the defendant, state that the plaintiff should get commission at the rate of 25% from the defendant on all books sold in the State of Andhra Pradesh.

4. The term of agency continued till 14.3.1994. After that without giving any reasons his agency was terminated.

5. As the defendant in terms of the agreement and on requisition by the plaintiffs sub-agents sent the books to the sub-agents directly, the plaintiff is not in a position to know the full and correct account of the sale of the books during the period agency and all such accounts are in the possession of the defendant.

6. The plaintiff verbally and in writing demanded of the defendant for inspection of the accounts which are in the possession of the defendant. But, the defendant refused to show them, and when the plaintiff asked for the commission he refused to pay it.

7. Thus, the plaintiff is not in a position to state the exact amount due to him, as commission, from the plaintiff.

8. The cause of action for this suit arose on 14.3.1994, the date of sudden termination of agency by the plaintiff and on 2.12.1994, the date on which the plaintiff refused to show the records to the defendant.

9. As the business of the agency was to be carried on within the jurisdiction of this Court in terms of the agreement and as the demand for inspection of accounts as well as for payment of commission was made within the jurisdiction of this court and refused by the defendant, this court has jurisdiction to try this suit.

10. The valuation of the suit for the purpose of Court fees as well as for jurisdiction is tentatively fixed at Rs. 40,000/-.

11. The plaintiff undertakes to pay additional Court fees for the excess amount found due in favour, of the plaintiff.

The plaintiff therefore prays, the amount due from the defendant as commission for the selling of the books, for the loss he incurred due to the sudden termination of the agency and the the costs of this suit.



Written Statement:

1. Allegations made in paragraphs 1, 2, and 3 of the plaint are all correct and are admitted as true.

2. The plaintiff violated the terms of the agreement. According to the terms of the agreement, he was forbidden from entering into similar such agreements with any other publisher, but the defendant having learnt that the plaintiff had also entered into similar agreements with one more publisher and had been working detrimental to the agency agreement entered between the plaintiff and the defendant was obliged to terminate the agency business.

3. It is not true that the plaintiff was denied the right of inspecting the accounts. He was well aware of the accounts.

4. The plaintiff was paid his commission regularly.

Short Essay on Biotic Community | Essay

Community ecology deals with the ecology of the groups of different kinds of populations in the area. While, population eco­logy is the study of individuals of the same species where proces­ses as aggregation, inter-dependencies between individuals and various factors governing such processes are emphasized. The popu­lation ecology has an applied significance for various human popu­lation oriented socio-economic problems at national and interna­tional levels.

The most visible component of the ecosystem is the biotic, the vegetation and animal life. The assemblage of different plants, animals and micro-organisms in any given ecosystem or in any given physical environment is a community. Thus, the forest with various trees, shrubs, herbs, animals, birds and insects and fungi and other micro-organisms is recognized as a community.

Even within the forest which is a major habitat, any microhabitat such as a piece of decaying log, leaf or fruit or a tiny pool of water held in the hollow of a tree may support a community of heterotrophs such as fungi, bacteria, small insects, etc.

In a community the or­ganisms are interdependent—some organisms, called autotrophs (e.g., plants) are synthesizing the food by fixing solar energy in the photosynthetic activity and all others, called heterotrophs (e.g., animals and micro-organisms), are utilizing the energy stored in the plant material or in the autotrophs either directly (herbivores) or indirectly (carnivores and detrivores).

The community is thus essentially a biotic community. Since the plants, animals and micro­organisms all interact with each other and cannot be separated. At this stage, the biotic community can be defined as a naturally occu­rring assemblage of plants, animals and micro-organisms living in the same environment, mutually sustaining and interdependent, constantly fixing utilizing and dissipating energy (Smith, 1977).

However, McNaughton and Wolf (1973) have considered groups of popula­tions with similar ecological functions coexisting in space and time as distinct communities. The forest thus consists of several com­munities of plants, animals and microorganisms, all of which to­gether constitute the biotic component of an ecosystem.

The biotic communities represent a higher order of biological organisation than populations, yet, communities refer only Id living organisms, and they are not as inclusive as ecosystems.

In other words, the study of communities involves the entire biology of an area, but strictly speaking, it does not involve the specific study of the interactions of plants, animals and micro-organisms with the non-living components of the environment the way ecosystem analysis does (Southwick, 1976).

Some authors such as S. C. Kendeigh (1974) and R. L. Smith (1977) have divided the biotic communities into the following two main types: major or autotrophic communities which together with their habitats, form more or less complete and self-sustaining units except for the indispensable input of solar energy; and minor or heterotrophic communities which are secondary aggregations within the major communities and are not, therefore, completely indepen­dent units as far as circulation of energy is concerned. i.e., They depend on major communities for their energy source. For exam­ple, any forest forms the major community, while the community existing on any microhabitat which is occurring within the forest is the minor community.

A biotic community has a series of characteristics such as structure, dominance, niche, species diversity, stability, development and a metabolic rate which is not present in its individual species component, but has meaning only with reference to community level of organisation.

Suit by an Assignee of a Promissory Note–Sample Format

2. The said R. Raja Rao assigned the promissory note date 12.6.1978 to the plaintiff, for a valid consideration of Rs. 60,000/- (Rupees Sixty Thousand only).

3. The plaintiff informed the defendant of the said assignment by a notice dated 18.8.1980 to the plaintiff. Although the plaintiff demanded the defendant to discharge the debt and though a notice had been given, the defendant failed to discharge the debt. Hence, this suit.

Written Statement:

1. The Defendant denies all the averments of the Plaint except those which are specifically admitted.

2. The Defendant submits that the Plaintiff is not the assignee for consideration, and that the assignment is pleaded only to obviate the plea of the Defendant. The suit as laid by the Plaintiff is bad and is not maintainable.

3. The Defendant submits that he does not know Sri R. Raja Rao. The Defendant never executed the suit pronote. The suit pronote is rent forgery. Further the suit pronote is not supported by consideration. Added to it, the Defendant submits that there are patent material alterations in the Suit pronote invalidating the same. Even on this count, the suit is bad.

4. The Defendant therefore submits that the suit be dismissed with exemplary costs.

Essay on Important Aspects of Remote Sensing Technique

Infrared photography is a newer and very useful technique in the study of vegetation because the molecules of pigments in plants do not absorb infrared wavelengths. Instead the infrared is either transmitted through the leaf or is reflected by the cell walls.

Cells of one species of plant have a different reflectivity than those of an­other, and normal cells have a different reflectivity than abnormal ones. Therefore, infrared photography has been used to dis­tinguish species and to detect unhealthy plants.

It is also used to detect differences in environmental temperatures. Such pictures or thermographs, in which differences in temperature appear as con­trasting bands of colour, permit the detection of thermal pollution.

One of the most sophisticated remote sensing technique, called multispectral scanning, several or many spectral bands from ultra­violet to infrared recorded. The visual data are gathered by telemetry or are recorded on film or magnetic tape. The image data are fed into a multichannel led sensor, which sorts out the various displays or images.

Because all the channels were recorded simultaneously, each image is in perfect register. This enables the interpreter to pick out and study an object of interest with different types of images taken at the same instant.

Suit for Account against ‘Karta’ of a Joint Family – Sample Format

unqualified, or an admission qualified by a condition which is fulfilled. An unqualified admission and an admission qualified by a condition which is fulfilled stand precisely upon the same footing, and both within Section 18.

Ingredients of Section 18 and essentials of a valid acknowledgement-

To constitute a valid acknowledgement and thus to give a fresh period of limitation under this section, the following conditions must be satisfied-

2. The acknowledgement must have been made by the party against whom the right is then claimed or by any person through whom he derives his title or liability.

3. The acknowledgement must be in writing; however, if the acknowledgement is undated, oral evidence may be given of the time when it was signed.

4. Such acknowledgement must have been signed by the party, his agent or the party against whom the right is then claimed or by any person through whom he derives his title or liability.

5. The acknowledgement must be an acknowledgement of liability. It is not necessary that the acknowledgement must also contain a promise to pay; a simple admission that debt is due is quite sufficient under the Indian law. It is otherwise under the English Law, under which an acknowledgement to be effective must also contain import of a promise to pay. Under the Indian Law, it is not necessary that the writing containing the acknowledgement of some right or property should specify exactly what the right is or the exact nature of the property (e.g., exact sum due). Again and this is really extraordinary an acknowledgment will be sufficient for the purposes of the section, even though it is coupled with a refusal to pay, or with a claim to set-off, or with a statement that time for payment has not yet arrived. But all the same it must be an admission of liability; a statement by the debtor implying that there is no liability does not amount to an acknowledgement.

6. The acknowledgement is not required to be made to the creditor or the person entitled to the right or the property; it may be made to any person, even to one who has no connection with the creditor.

2. Since the death of their father, the defendant has been managing as Karta the properties left by their father. As all the papers and documents in connection with their joint properties are with the defendant, the plaintiff is unable to give the full details of the said joint property. Whatever the plaintiff could gather from vigorous searches is described in the schedule to the plaint.

3. On attaining the majority in………….. the plaintiff requested the defendant to give him all the details of the properties left by their father and inherited by the plaintiff and the defendant jointly and equally. The defendant avoided it on the pretext or another and ultimately refused to disclose the same to the plaintiff on (date)

4. The defendant has not also rendered any account about the income of the joint properties and on the same day, i.e. …(date) refused to render any account to the plaintiff.

5. The cause of action for this suit arose on when the plaintiffs demand for an account was refused by the defendant.

6. The plaintiff and the defendant reside within the jurisdiction of this court.

7. The value for this subject matter of the suit for the purpose of Court fees and jurisdiction is fixed tentatively at Rs. 76,000/-.

The plaintiff therefore prays:

(a) for an account of the receipts and disbursement of the joint family properties since the death of his father, that is (date)

(b) Ascertainment of the plaintiffs share of income derived from the joint family properties.

(c) The payment to the plaintiff is half share of the net income of the joint family properties:



Written Statement:

1. The averments of paragraph 1 of the plaint is admitted.

2. The defendant does not admit that all the properties described in the schedule to the plaint are the joint properties of the plaintiff and the defendant. Only the Item No. 1 of the schedule which is their homestead is the joint family property. The remaining properties of the schedule to the plaint are the exclusive properties of the defendant acquired by the defendant with his own money and the plaintiff has no share in any one of them. Since the properties are not joint the question of showing the accounts to the plaintiff does not arise.

3. The other allegations made in the plaint are denied.

4. The plaintiffs suit being speculative is liable to be dismissed with costs.

The plaintiff has got no cause of action.


Factors or Variables Affecting Organism Res­ponse to Temperature | Essay

2. The thermal resistance of a species may be closely identified with the genetic composition of the parent stock, as illustrated by hybrid development in two anuran species, Bufo valliceps and B. luetkeni (Ballinger and Mc Kinney, 1966). The lower lethal temperature for development of B. valliceps is 18°C; for B. luetkeni, 22°C. In their hybrids, the lower lethal limit is found to be in between that of the two parents at 195C.

3. In some animals a relationship between the total intake of food and resistance to thermal stress has been demonst­rated. Some species are more sensitive to elevated temperatures when they are starved for even short periods of time. Goldfish showed increased resistance to high temperature when placed on a high fat diet (Hoar and Cottle, 1952).

4. The size of animal body is found to have some correlation with thermal lethal limits of animals. In some species, the smaller animals are more resistant to higher temperatures than the larger ones; in some species the reverse is noted, and in other species size is not an apparent varia­ble. Further, some smaller animals die faster at low temperatures than do larger animals of the same species, but at higher tempera­tures body size is not a factor.

5. Many species of animals have exceedingly complex life cycles during which the larval stages are not only morphologically dissimilar from the adult but also occupy different ecological niches. In the wharf crab, Sesarma cinereum, thermal requirements of the planktonic zoeal stages are different from those of adults because these larvae are limited to a smallar temperature range than are the adults.

6. The female sex is found to be more tolerant than males to the temperature fluctuations.

7. Among certain invertebrates, such as, in some crabs moulting adve­rsely affected heat resistance, but had no effect on other species.

8. Mud-flat snails, Nassarius obsoleta, which are heavily infected with trematode larvae (i.e., parasites) cannot withstand high tempe­ratures like the non-parasitized snails.

9. Hormones have been shown to influence cold and warm resistance as well as acclimation (viz., temperature adaptation) to temperature, especially in mam­mals and a few other invertebrates.

10. Acclimatization (see section 11-4-7) of the fish Tilapia zilli to high temperature of 30°C leads to higher values of haematological parameters (viz., R.B.C. count. W.B.C. count, Hb concentration and Hacmatocrit, etc.), while low temperature causes a depression of these values (Farghaly et al., 1973) Similar changes in blood parameters due to temperature have been observed in many other fishes such as Heteropneustes Fossilis (Pandey, 1977). Salmo gairdneri (De wilde and Houston, 1967), Abramis brama and Lucioperca lucioperca (Molnar et al., 1960).

Suit for a Mandatory Injunction by a Landlord – Sample Format

2. The premises was solely and exclusively let out for the purpose of running a business.

3. The defendant, without consent of the plaintiff, began raising of an improvised structure on the open inner courtyard of the premises on 11.11.1993 intending to use the same as a car-shed.

4. The plaintiff came to know regarding this unauthorised structure only on 1.12.1994 and protested the same day but the defendant threatened to complete the construction.

5. That the cause of action for this suit arose on 1.12.1994 when the plaintiff came to know of the unauthorised construction at Bheemunipatna within the jurisdiction of this court.

6. Suit valuation.

The plaintiff, therefore, prays

i. For a decree of mandatory injunction directing the defendant to pull down the said unauthorised construction forthwith:

ii. For an injunction restraining the defendant and his engaged labour to continue acts of construction.

Written Statement:

1. It is true that the defendant is the tenant under the plaintiff. The tenancy is covered by lease agreement dated 9.8.1992. The agreement’s clause 13 empowers the defendant to make constructions in the leased premises. The plaintiff therefore cannot claim any injunction against the defendant for making the construction.

2. The defendant further submits that the defendant in fact raised only a shed with asbestos to keep the empty tins and bottles. There is no justification for the plaintiff to claim for a mandatory injunction to pull down the structure which is not causing any obstruction whatsoever to anyone.

The suit is liable to be dismissed even on this count.

3. Hence, the defendant prays that the suit may be dismissed with costs.

Suit for Partition of a Joint Hindu Family – Sample Format

2. The said Sri L. Bhujang Rao, died on the 12th November, 1976, leaving his widow, defendant No. 1, four sons, namely, the plaintiff and the defendants Nos. 2-4 on whom the said property in the Schedule below devolved in equal shares.

3. The plaintiff and the defendants each have 1/5 share in the said property and they are in joint possession of the same.

4. Difference has lately arisen in the management and enjoyment of the said property whereupon the plaintiff demanded from the defendants partition of the said property but the defendants refused to do the same.

Written Statement:

1. It is true that the plaintiff and Defendant 2 to 4 are brothers and that the first defendant is their widowed mother. However, the father of the plaintiff and defendant 2 to 4 died leaving will dated 22.3.1992 duly registered. Under the said will, the entire plaint schedule estate is bequeathed to defendants 2 to 4 and plaintiff is excluded from inheritance. As such, the plaintiff is not entitled to lay the suit.

2. Even if the father of the plaintiff and defendants 2 to 4 died intestate, the first defendant is also entitled to a share in the estate of her late husband.

Hence, the plaintiff is entitled to only 6/25th share. However, as the father of the plaintiff died leaving a will, the suit claim shall fail.

Suit for Setting Aside a Decree on Ground of Fraud – Sample Format


A. Lakshmi Narayana


B. Bala Ramaiah

The above named plaintiff submits as under:

1. The defendant is an intelligent person and is sort of a tout. He obtained a decree against the plaintiff on 24.3.1991 * parte for specific performance of a contract in Other Class Suit No of 19 in the court of. At………………………………….

2. The defendant put into execution the said decree in E.P. No…… of

19….. notice where if was served on the plaintiff by the court process server on………

3. The said decree in the aforesaid suit No.. of 19….was fraudulently obtained by the defendant by fraudulent suppression of the summons. The plaintiff did not receive summons, nor any servant of the court even went to the plaintiffs place of residence. The alleged ‘refusal’ of summons is a collusive endorsement on the writ of summons by the process server.

4. The plaintiff did not enter into any contract with the defendant for sale of his lands and the defendant’s contention in the suit was false to his knowledge.

5. That the plaintiff had no knowledge of the said suit, far less of the decree. The plaintiff came to know of the same on…. only on receipt of a notice of the E.P. aforesaid. The plaintiff gathered particulars by an Information slip attached herewith.

6. That the said decree is liable to be set aside.

The plaintiff therefore prays:

(i) For a judgment and decree setting aside the decree of the Other Class suit no…. of of this court.

(ii) Costs of suit

Written Statement:

The plaintiff has been falsely contending that he was not served with summons. The process server obtained not only the endorsement of the plaintiff herein but also endorsement of two elders of the locality in token of proof of service. Hence, the claim of the plaintiff is deliberate falsehood.

2. The defendant submits that the plaintiff laid this suit instead of a petition under Order 9 Rule 13 C.P.C. and has been toying to obviate the rules of limitation.

3. The suit is barred by limitation. The suit is also not maintainable. The suit therefore is liable to be dismissed with exemplary costs.