Essay on the “Nuclear Power of India” – (2648 Words)

India has vast deposits (about 50 per cent of the world) of thorium which can yield up to 200,000 GWe/year of electrical energy easily meeting her energy requirements of the new century.

Nuclear Power Minerals:

Uranium:

Uranium occurs as disseminations and impregnations in Archaean crystalline schists and Pre- Cambrian metamorphosed slates and phyllites in Bihar and some parts of the Himalayas.

It also occurs in pegmatites; but a more reliable and substantial source of uranium lies in the deposits of monazite sands both beach and alluvial. Compounds of this highly strategic metal of increasing value as atomic fuel in nuclear power reactors are found in India associated principally with crystalline, igneous and metamorphic rocks.

Here uranium mineralization is associated with sulphidic copper and oxidized iron, rather than with gold, lead, zinc or vanadium ores. The uranium ores of India belong to three categories:

(1) Pegmatitic Pitchblende and complex niobates, tantalates and titanates of uranium, e.g. samarskite, fergusonite, brannerite, etc.

(2) Uranium compounds impregnating rocks that have been involved in orogenic movements giving rise to larger shear and thrust-planes, e.g. along the Singhbhum Copper Belt in Bihar and the tightly compressed rocks of the Aravalli synclinorium in Rajasthan.

(3) Monazite occurring in large beach-sand deposits on the east and the west coasts of India and in some places in Bihar carries a small fraction from 0.2 to 0.4 per cent of uranium oxide.

The need for the development of nuclear energy in India arises from the country’s meagre power resources in the fossil fuels (only 0.6% of oil and gas and 6% of coal reserves of the world) and hydro electricity with numerous social and environmental problems and long gestation period.

Thorium:

The main source of this rare heavy metal, a likely future substitute for uranium in atomic energy reactors, is monazite, which contains up to 10 per cent of thoria and 0.3 per cent of urania; other minerals carrying thorium is thorianite (ThO2-70 per cent with uranothorianite).

The resources of India in thorium, the ‘fertile’ fission metal and the potential atomic fuel of the near future, are of considerable magnitude.The very rare mineral thorianite (ThO2-70 per cent), which is found in the crystalline rocks of Sri Lanka in commercial quantity, is found as a rare constituent of some Kerala ilmenite sands.

Beryllium:

Besides its use in a number of valuable metallurgical alloys mentioned under ‘Beryl’ elsewhere, beryllium oxide is of use as a ‘moderator’ in nuclear reactors for atomic power generation. The reserves of beryl in India being considerable, it will be able to meet all indigenous demands for atomic as well as metallurgical uses.

Lithium:

This light metal has sprung into strategic prominence in experiments on the production of atomic energy through thermonuclear fusion of light elements. The former mineral is fairly widespread in the mica belt of Bihar, Madhya Pradesh and Rajastfian, the reserves of which are ample for future requirements.

A deposit of lithium-mica, lepidolite, has been found in the Bastar region of Madhya Pradesh- Orissa in the form of boulders of lepidolite aggregating a few hundred tonnes. It is capable of supporting a small industry for the manufacture of lithium salts rather than for the extraction of lithium metal.

Zirconium:

India possesses large resources of this rare metal in the mineral zircon (Zr02-65 per cent) which forms about 6 per cent of the well-known ilmenite beach sands of the Indian coasts, particularly the Kerala coast. Zircon sand contains baddeleyite, another zirconium mineral. Zircon concentrates also occur in the alluvial soil in Ranchi and Hazaribagh districts of Bihar.

Not occurring free in nature, this greyish metal is extracted from the mineral zircon, which is silicate of zirconium. Zirconium is alloyed with iron, silicon, tungsten, etc. It is also used for removing oxides and nitrides from steel and in making flash lamps of various kinds. Zirconia, the oxide of zirconium, is used as a refractory in abrasive, in enamels, etc.

Pure zirconium possesses some valuable properties; resistance to heat and corrosion and complete inability to capture thermal neutrons. It has, therefore, attained prominence lately as a structural and cladding material in atomic reactors. Crytolite is a radioactive variety, containing a small percentage of U308. An exportable surplus of zircon exists in India (total reserves: 10,160,000 tonnes).

Titanium:

Ilmenite is the chief ore. Reserves of ilmenite (TjO2—50-60 per cent) are computed at nearly 152 million tonnes. Though these reserves are large, they are by no means inexhaustible at the rate of depletion that was prevalent in the years previous to World War II.

Kerala State has started manufacture of titanium paints locally on a small scale. Titanium, ‘the metal of the future’, possesses some extraordinary properties for use in industry and commerce as well as for defence purposes.

India’s Nuclear Power Programme:

Nuclear power has played an important role in the power development in all the developed countries and it forms over 17% of the total installed power capacity in the world. About 30-40% of the power development in the Asia-Pacific region is of nuclear type.

To meet the long term energy needs of the country, a three-stage nuclear power programme was formulated in 1954. The programme aimed at using natural resources of uranium and thorium available in the country for power generation as below:

Stage I: 10,000 MW through natural uranium fuelled pressured heavy water reactors;

Stage II: Fast breeder reactors with plutonium as fuel and thorium as blanket for breeding U-233; and

Stage III: Breeder reactors using U-233 as fuel aid thorium as blanket.

Nuclear power production began in India with the commissioning in 1969, of the Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS 420 MW) at Tarapur in Maharashtra. This station had two boiling water reactors (BWRs) and it was set up with US help on a turnkey basis. The US discontinued its cooperation in 1974. The Nuclear Power Board with the support of Indian industries successfully developed the required technology and the plant is operating successfully.

As is obvious from the distribution of the nuclear power stations, the greatest advantage of this source of power is that it may be located anywhere and thus the areas away from localised sources of fossil fuel may benefit. It is also very economical. A unit of electricity at Tarapur and Kalpakkam costs 40 to 58 paise compared with 60 to 90 paise per unit from the thermal plants in the respective regions. However, the cost from new nuclear power plants is gradually rising, At Narora it costs 118 paise.

Power Reactors:

NPCIL is responsible for design construction commissioning and operation of nuclear power reactors. Including RAPS-1 of 100 MW which is owned by the government) and 6 reactors under construction with capacity of 4800MW. The total generation in the calendar year 2011 was 32405 million units (MU). NPCIL is presently operating 20 nuclear power reactors with an installed capacity of 4780 MW.

Tarapur Power Station:

For putting up India’s first power stations, the Tarapur site, near Mumbai in western India was chosen in 1958 after a comprehensive survey of a number of possible sites all over the country. Two boiling water reactors (BWR) of 200 MW each were purchased from USA in 1964 as a turn key project, but with maximum participation of Indian personnel in all stages of design, construction, testing and training operations.

The station went into commercial operation in late 1969. However, since 1970 the enriched uranium fuel elements for the station are being fabricated in India based on imported hexafluoride.

As the Tarapur reactors are amongst earlier BWRs, several modification have been progressively carried out based on operational experience to ease operation and maintenance of equipment, reduce personnel radiation exposures, minimise radioactive discharges to the environment and improved reliability and overall performance of the station.

In 1960 it was decided that first stage natural uranium reactors would be of the heavy water type. These reactors would enable the maximum utilisation of the country’s limited uranium reserves. By 1962 it was decided that the second atomic power station would be located near Kota in the State of Rajasthan and that the two 220 MW reactors would be based on the Canadian design which at that time was considered as proven.

Canada was responsible for the design and supply of major equipment for the first unit while India took up the responsibility for construction and installation activities. Right from the start of this project, efforts were made to manufacture as many components as possible in India.

Thus the Rajasthan station opened up opportunities for many Indian industries to enter the nuclear power field and develop sophisticated technologies indigenously. Some of the nuclear equipment manufactured in the country for the second unit include the reactor vessel (calandria), end shields, dump tank, shield tank, steam generators, fuelling machines, sealing and shield plugs, etc.

Kalpakkam Power Station:

The third power station near Chennai consists of two units of 235 MW each. Though these reactors are similar to the Rajasthan units, several design modifications have been introduced for reasons of economy and due to special conditions at the site.

Some of the modified features include pre-stressed concrete reactor containment building, stainless steel end shields, submarine tunnel for drawing cooling water from the sea and an indoor switchyard. The Madras station marks the coming of age of the Indian atomic energy programme, as full responsibility for the execution of the project, including design, construction, commissioning the operation rests with Indian engineers and scientists.

Narora Power Station:

The Fourth is the 2?235 MW reactors at Narora in Uttar Pradesh. The first unit of the country’s fifth twin unit PHWR station set up at Kakrapar has just attained critically.

Kaiga Power Station:

Work has been initiated recently by the newly formed Nuclear Power Corporation at a new site, Kaiga in Karnataka. The plant has been in operation since 2000 and is operated by Nuclear Power Corporation of India. It has four units with one still under construction. All of the four are small sized CANDU plants of 220 MW.

Kakrapar Atomic Power Station:

It has in Gujarat near Surat and consists of two 220 MW pressurized water reactors with heavy water as Moderator (PHWR). KAPS went critical as 3 September 1992 and began commercial electricity production in September 1985. In Jan. 2003, the CANDU Owners Group (COG) distinguished KAPS -1 as the world-wide best PHWR of its class.

Project under Construction:

Kudankulam Nuclear Power- 1 and 2 Rajasthan Atomic power Project – 7 and 8.

A nuclear reactor that produces the same kind of fissile material as it burns, as called the breeder reactor. Breeder reactors while using plutonium as fuel can produce more Pu-239 than it consumes by converting non-fissionable U-238 that predominates- in natural uranium ore.

Fast Breeder Reactors:

Under the second stage of India’s nuclear programme, fast breeder reactors will be used for power generation. For the development of such reactors the Indira Gandhi Centre for Atomic Research (IGCAR) was set up in 1971. The Centre has successfully built a East Breeder Test Reactor using indigenously developed mixed uranium-plutonium carbide fuel core.

Thorium Based Reactors:

Thorium will be used as fuel or power generation in the third stage of the Indian nuclear power programme. Utilisation of throium in the research reactors and power reactors for the production of uranium-233, a nuclear fuel has been established along with the facilities for its separation from irradiated thorium research radiography.

The neutron source reactor ‘Kamini’, which uses uranium-233 obtained from irradiated thorium, attained full power level of 30 kwt. It will be used for neutron radiography irradiated fuel.

The reactor has been set up by the BARC at Kalpakkam. Thorium fuel bundles have also been successfully used in the Kakrapara Atomic Power Station for flux flatting. Design of an advanced stage heavy water reactor for utilisation of thorium is making good progress at the BARC.

Heavy Water Production:

Since the pressurised heavy water reactors (PHWRs) generating nuclear power, use heavy water as a moderator and coolant, a small plant using electrolysis (of water technology was set up at Nangal (Punjab) in 1961. Since then, seven more large units have been installed at Baroda and Hazira in Gujarat, Kota in Rajasthan, Manuguro in Andhra Pradesh, Talcher in Orissa, Thai in Maharashtra and Tuticorin in Tamil Nadu.

The designing, construction and operation of the heavy water plants based on ammonia-hydrogen exchange and indigenously developed water-hydrogen sulphide exchange process, is vested with the Heavy Water Board.

Besides meeting the home demand for heavy water fully, the DAE has begun exporting it, commencing with the first consignment to South Korea. A Heavy Water Reconcentration facility set up in 1962, upgrades the used, degraded heavy water from research reactors. Nineteen such units are in operation in the country presently.

Atomic Minerals Mining:

The Atomic Minerals Division (AMD) of the Department of Atomic Energy has been the sole agency engaged in the exploration and mining of uranium in the country for the last 50 years.

It has discovered reserves of 78,000 tonnes of uranium oxide and it has mines at Jaduguda, Bhatin and Narwapahar in Bihar, which are operated by the Uranium Corporation of India Ltd (UCIL), a subsidiary of the DAE. Uranium ore has also been discovered by the AMD at Domiasiat (Meghalaya) and Lambapur-Yellapur and Lummalapalla (Andhra Pradesh).

The UCIL had started operations with only’ one underground mine and a processing mill at Jaduguda (Bihar). It has opened two more mines at Bhatin and Narwapahar. Another mine will be opened at Domiasiat. The UCIL also runs two recovery plants at Rakha and Mosabani (Bihar) to recover uranium from copper tailings from the Hindustan Copper Complex Plant.

The Indian Rare Earths (IRE), another public sector undertaking of DAE, has been engaged since 1950, in mining and processing of mineral sands containing thorium and rare earth minerals.

The company has three mineral sands separation plants at Manavalakurichi (Kerala), Chavara and Chatrapur (Orissa), which produce ilmenite, rutile, monazite, zircon and garnet.

A rare earth’s plant at Alwaye (Kerala) produces rare earths chlorides. The IRE manages the thorium mills at Trombay. Placer deposits are commercially exploited by the IRE which supplies thorium ores to the throium plant at Trombay and Zircon for production of zircaloy components.

Nuclear Power Policy of India:

The Nuclear Power Corporation of India was established in 1989 to realise the target of generating 9000 MW of electricity. For this purpose three Nuclear Reactor Centres have been established. These are as follows:

(i) Accelerated exploitation of domestic conventional energy resources;

(ii) Intensification of exploration to achieve indigenous production of oil and gas;

(iii) Management of demand of oil and other forms of energy;

(iv) Energy conservation and management:

(v) Optimization and utilisation of existing capability in the country;

(vi) Development and exploitation of renewable sources of energy to meet energy requirements of rural communities;

(vii) Intensification of resources and development activities in new and renewable energy resources; and

(viii) Organisation of training for personnel engaged at various level in the energy sector.

Nuclear Pollution:

It is not only the use of fossil fuels that pollutes our surroundings; even the use of nuclear energy gives rise to pollutants and hence, pollutes our environment. In fact, the pollution caused by the use of nuclear energy from fission process is much more damaging than the pollution caused by burning fossil fuels. The fuels like U-235 are active substances, which keep on emitting some nuclear reactions all the time.

The dangerous nuclear radiations can enter into the environment by leakage from nuclear reactors where fission of U-235 is going on. These nuclear radiations can damage and cause irreparable damage to cells and in some cases even lead to death.

Essay on “Major Power Corporations in India”– (1485 Words)

This gave a fillip to the growth of the power sector in the country. The Nuclear Power Corporation and Power Grid Corporation of India Limited were created to give further boost to the power development programme.

1. National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC):

The National Thermal Power Corporation (NTPC) was incorporated in 1975 as a thermal power generating company. Its ultimate objective is the formation of the National Grid. NTPC is a schedule ‘A’ Navratna company having a total approved investment of Rs. 91619.92 crore.

As a means to achieving this goal, it is responsible for the planning for the construction of thermal power stations, the promotion of new units and better application of technology in the established units and organizing the integrated development of thermal power in the country.

For the tenth consecutive year it has been making profits and is rated as one of the “Navratnas” by the Government of India. The total installed capacity of the company is 39174 MW (including JVS) with 16 coal based and 7 gas station located across the country.

2. Power Grid Corporation of India Ltd:

Power Grid Corporation of India Limited (PGCIL) is the new name of the National Power Transmission Corporation (NPTC). It is a navratana PSL. It was incorporated on 23 October 1989 with the main objective of setting up transmission lines, sub­stations, load dispatch centres and communication facilities. Power Grid wheels about 45% of the total power generated in the country on its transmission network.

It has a pan India presence with around 71,500 circuit’s kms of transmission network and 120 nos. of substations with a total transformation capacity of 79,500 MVA. Power Grid has diversified with telecom business.

3. National Hydro-Electric Power Corporation:

The National Hydro-electric Power Corporation (NHPC) with an authorised share capital of Rs. 2,000 million has become a major organisation for hydro power development in India, with capabilities to undertake all the activities from concept to commissioning in relation to setting up of Hydro projects. It has been conferred mini ratna status. It is ranked among top companies in the country in terms of investment.

NHPC has ISO-9001 for its quality management system and ISO 14001 for environment standard with installed capacity of 5295 MW. It has got 14 power stations and an installed capacity of 5295 MW. It has power stations in the following states: (1) J & K (2) H.P. (3) Uttarakhand (4) Arunachal Pradesh (5) Assam (6) Manipur (7) Sikkim (8) W. Bengal.

4. North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation Limited:

The North-Eastern Region is blessed with the highest hydro power potential in the country which is estimated at about 1130 MW i.e. almost 40% of the country’s total hydro potential. Out of which less than two per cent of this potential (1095 MW) has so far been harnessed. Besides this, there is considerable thermal power potential, mainly in terms of gas reserves.

As per the report status of Hydro Electric Power Potential listed by CEA as on 31-10-2006, only 7% (4029 MW) capacity has been tapped. With a need to develop this huge power potential, North-Eastern Electric Power Corporation (NEEPCO) was incorporated on 2 April 1976 as a wholly-owned Government enterprise under the Ministry of Power, to plan, promote, investigate, survey, design, construct, generate, operate and maintain power stations in the NE Region.

NEEPCO authorised share capital is Rs 500 Crore at present and it not worth as on 31st march 2011 is Rs 4619.14 Crores.

5. Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam Limited:

The Satluj Jal Vidyut Nigam (SJVN) Ltd. (formerly Nathpa Jhakri Power Corporation Ltd.) was incorporated on 24 May 1988 as a joint venture of the Government of India (GOI) and the Government of Himachal Pradesh (GOHP) to plan, investigate, organise, execute, operate and maintain hydro-electric power projects in the Satluj basin in the Himachal Pradesh.

The present authorised share capital of SJVN is Rs. 4,500 crore. The equity-sharing ratio of GOI and GOHP is 3:1 respectively. In addition to the financial assistance from the World Bank, SJVN is also supported by a Consortium of European Banks and the PFC.

The 1500 mw, Nathpa Jhakri Hydro-electric Power Project is the first project undertaken by SJVN. In addition to other project components, the Nathpa Jhakri project consists of an underground Desilting Complex, comprising four chambers, each 525m long, 16.31m wide and 27.5 m deep which is one of the largest underground complexes for the generation of hydro power in the world and a 10.15m dia and 27.4 km long Head Race Tunnel (one of the longest power tunnels in the world).

Besides the social and economic upliftment of the people in its vicinity, on commissioning, the 1,500 MW, NJHPP will generate 6,950 Ml) of energy. It would also provide 1,500 MW of valuable peaking power to the Northern Grid.

SJVN is also planning to take up the execution of more projects in the Satluj river basin in the Himachal Pradesh. In the 11th FYP, SJVN will also complete the Luhri and Khab Hydro Electric Projects in H P. and the Devsari, Naitwar Mori and Jokhol Sankri Hydro Electric Projects in Uttaranchal.

6. Tehri Hydro Development Corporation Limited:

The THDC, a Joint Venture Corporation of the Government of India and Government of U.P., was incorporated in July 1988, to Plan, promote and organise an integrated and efficient development of hydro resources of Bhagirathi river and its tributaries at Tehri and complementary downstream development (the Tehri Complex) for power generation and other purposes in all its aspects and to undertake in a similar manner the development and harnessing of such hydroelectric sites/projects in Bhagirathi/Bhilangana valleys as may be entrusted by the state government.

The Corporation has an authorised share capital of Rs. 4,000 crore. The Corporation is presently engaged in the implementation of Tehri Hydro Power Complex (2,400 MW) comprising of Tehri Dam and HPP, Stage-I (1,000 MW) and 400 MW Koteshwar HE Project and Tehri Pumped Storage Plant (1,000 MW). Two units of 250 MW each were successfully rolled on 31 March 2006.

With this commissioning process.of Tehri Stage-I project has started. All four machines of Tehri Powerr Station are under commercial operations. As on July 2009, Tehri Power Station has generated 7,350.13 MU of electrical energy.

The Tehri Hydro Power Complex (2,400 MW) will generate 6,200 million units of energy per year on its completion (3,568 million units on completion of Tehri Stage-I) and will provide addition irrigation facility to 2.70 lakh ha. Besides stabilising existing irrigation facility in 6.04 lakh ha, of land. The Project will provide drinking water facilities for 40 lakh people in Delhi and for 30 lakh people in town and villages of Uttarakhand.

7. Damodar Valley Corporation:

The Damodar Valley Corporation (DVC), the first multipurpose river valley project of the Government was set up in July 1948 for the unified development of Damodar Valley region spread over the states of Jharkhand and West Bengal on the model of Tennessee Valley Corporation. DVC’s objectives include flood control and irrigation, water supply and drainage, generation, transmission and distribution of electrical energy, both hydroelectric and thermal, afforestation and control of soil erosion, public health and agricultural, industrial, economic well-being in the Damodar Valley.

The DVC’s main projects include four dams at Maithon, Panchet, Tilaiya and Konar, with connected hydro-electric power stations (except at Konar), thermal power station at Bokaro ‘A’, Bokaro ‘B’ Chandrapura, Durgapur,, Mejia and also one gas turbine station at Maithon.

DVC supplies power to coal mines, steel plants, railways and other big industries, besides State electricity Boards Jharkhand and West Bengal. DVC EMTA Coalmines Ltd. is a Joint Venture Co. formed with Eastern Minerals and Trading Agency for the development of captive coal mines.

8. Bhakra Beas Management Board:

The Bhakra-Beas Management Board (BBMB) manages the facilities created for harnessing the waters impounded at Bhakra and Pong in addition to those diverted at Pondoh through the BSL Water Conductor System. It was also assigned the responsibility of delivering water and power to the beneficiary states in accordance with their entitled shares.

The Board is responsible for the administration, maintenance and operation at Bhakra Nangal Projects, Beas Project Unit I & Unit II including, Power House and a network of transmission lines and grid sub-stations.

The power generation of BBMB power stations is being evacuated through BBMB power evacuation system running into 3,755 circuit km length of 400 KV, 220 KV, 132 KV and 66 KV transmission lines and 24 EHV sub-stations.

The generation capacity of BBMB power plants is 2,866.30 MW The generation during 2008-09 was 1008.3 and is planned 1005.00 (MUs) in 2009-10. The states of Punjab Haryana, Rajasthan and Delhi are being supplied, on an average about 34,537.49 MCM (28 MAF) of water per year.

Essay on the Hydro-Electricity or Hydel Power in India (1504 Words)

How it Works:

1. The generation of electricity by using the force of falling water is called hydro-electricity.

2. Water is a renewable resource and can be used year after year. Thus, making hydel power cheaper to produce than thermal or nuclear power.

3. Water from storage reservoirs is sent through pipes along a steep gradient to rotate the turbines, which convert this energy into electricity. This process is very clean and does not cause pollution of any kind.

4. The water used for generating hydro-electricity is not consumed or contaminated in any way and is still available and suitable for use. It may be used for irrigation, industries or domestic purposes.

5. After the initial cost of constructing dams, power stations and transmission lines, the production of hydro-electricity is inexpensive since there is no consumption of fuel as in thermal power stations.

6. In most cases in India, the production of hydro-electricity is linked with irrigation, flood control, navigation and therefore the cost of hydel power production is lower.

Development of Hydro-Electricity in India:

Our country is endowed with enormous economically exploitable and viable hydro potential assessed to be about 84000 MW-at 60% load factor (148701 MW installed capacity.

The first hydro generating unit in India was commissioned in Darjeeling (W.Bengal) in 1897. Many projects were taken up for execution after independence and at one time (1962-63), the capacity contribution from hydro schemes was equal to thermal schemes.

However, with the rapid increase in demand for power, higher priority was given to the pithead super thermal power stations as their gestation period was smaller than of the hydel schemes. About 30 new hydro projects are now under execution with an installed capacity of 5,600 mw. The more important among these are the Nathpa Jhakri Project, Sardar Sarovar Project, and Sri Sailam Project.

Although hydro electricity accounts for less than 1/4th of the total installed capacity of electricity in India, it is the single largest source of energy for some states, e.g. Kerala’s cent per cent dependence is on hydro-electricity.

The other states being Himachal Pradesh (99.3%), Meghalaya (96.4%) and Sikkim (90%). Hydroelectricity accounts for over 2/3rds of the total installed capacity in Karnataka (79%), Odisha (72.2%), Jammu and Kashmir (68.8%) and Arunachal Pradesh (67.8%) while some other areas like Andhra Pradesh, Punjab, Rajasthan etc. depend upon this source for more than half of their installed capacity of hydro electricity is concerned. Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Maharashtra, Odisha, Punjab, Tamil Nadu and Uttar Pradesh are the outstanding states.

Hydro-Electric Power (HEP) generated from water is the cheapest amongst all the sources. Following are favourable conditions for the development of HEP in India.

(i) There should be perennial flow of large volume of water.

(ii)The water should fall from a sufficient height. This height may be in the form of a natural waterfall or obtained by constructing a dam across the river.

(iii) There should be no silting of water to save machinery.

(iv) A readily available market is an essential requirement for generating HEP as electricity cannot be stored.

(v) The generation of HEP requires huge capital investment as it is capital- intensive.

Thus heavy rainfall, rough topography to cause water to fall and a regular and continuous flow of water are the three important geographical requirements for developing hydro- electricity. Waterfalls exist mainly in the Cardamom hills, the Shillong plateau and the sea facing margins of the Western and Eastern Ghats.

Hydro- electricity is developed mainly in the Western Ghat, Kerala, Western UP, Himachal Pradesh and the Punjab because these areas are located far away from the coal mines and have sufficient water.

Due to heavy rainfall, deep and narrow river valleys and waterfalls, Western Ghats, the Nilgiri hills and the Cardamom hills have substantial share in the installed hydro-electricity capacity. The narrowness of river valleys reduce the cost of construction. India’s natural waterways are more or less evenly distributed over the entire country.

About 20 per cent of this capacity has been harnessed and 80 per cent still remains unharnessed. But there are some topographic limitations, as the regions possessing large hydro-power resources do not have enough demand for power to warrant development of the hydro power resources on a large scale.

Further the storage hydro power stations with large capacities have high initial capital requirements. Lastly, the performance of the hydro power stations has been seasonally variable. However, notwithstanding these limitations the country has a sizable quantum of untapped hydro resources.

Hydro-electricity Dominated Region:

It extends over Karnataka Kerala, Himachal, Jammu and Kashmir, Western Ghats, Meghalaya, Nagaland, Tripura and Sikkim. These are far away from coal fields but have optimum condition for the development of Hydro-electricity.

Potential and Developed Water Power:

Potential water power refers to the power that could be generated if all the water resources are harnessed. India is blessed with vast resources of water power. In potential water power, India comes after Republic of Zaire, Russia, Canada and the United States of America. India’s water power potential is estimated to be over 40 million kilowatts.

Nearly 60% of the potential water power resources lie in the Himalayas, while the remaining lie in Peninsular India. So far the areas richer in potential hydel power have practically not been developed.

The Himalayan region in Assam, Bihar and Uttar Pradesh has not been fully exploited. At present about 66% of the developed water power resources lies in the Western Ghats.

Factors Affecting H.E.P. Development:

The following are the factors which influence H E P. development.

(i) A Head of Water:

The hydro-turbines are driven by the force of the water against their blades. In natural streams and rivers, the force of the water is greatest where it flows most swiftly or where it falls rapidly as in the case of a waterfall or rapids. Even a smaH stream, when dropping from a great height has tremendous power and can be used to generate electricity.

Thus, many H.E.P. generating plants are located in mountainous districts where the rivers and streams have a steep gradient and waterfalls are common, e.g. the Swiss Alps, Scandinavia, the Rocky Mountains, Appalachians and the Japanese Alps. Rivers with a low gradient but a large volume of water can also be utilized, e.g. the River Shannon in Ireland or the Volta River in Ghana.

(ii) Large Volume of Water:

Generally speaking, although almost any river could be used to generate H.E.P., in practice, it is much more economic to harness large rivers such as the Indus, Nile or Zaire, than to use smaller rivers and streams.

(iii) Regular and Reliable Water supply:

It is important that rivers to be harnessed for power generation should not be subjected to great fluctuations in the volume of water, since this would make it difficult for plants to operate at a constant level of power production.

(iv) Presence of Lakes:

The presence of natural lakes along the course of a river is often a great advantage in H.E.P. development. There are many examples of this in Switzerland and Britain. In most cases, however, there are few natural lakes in suitable locations and dams are built to create large artificial lakes.

(v) Space for a Reservoir:

Another aspect of planning the construction of a dam for H.E.P. generation is that there must be a suitable location for creating a lake if this is necessary.

(vi) Large Market:

As electricity cannot be stored for long on a large scale, the demand for the power generated, by both domestic and industrial consumers, must be large and constant to warrant the initiation of H.E.P. stations.

(vii) Heavy Capital Outlay:

Modern large-scale H.E.P. projects are expensive undertakings. It is a common misconception, because H.E.P. is derived from water which is free, that it is always cheap. Once initial costs have been recouped, it may indeed be relatively cheap but this will necessarily take some time.

Because initial costs are so high H.E.P. undertakings are usually financed and operated by governments, which are concerned more with providing services than with profits. This is particularly true of multi-purpose projects.

Integrated Power Grid:

The production of electricity from hydel power stations in India varies from year to year depending on the variation of the monsoon rainfall. (In other parts of the world with cold winters, the freezing of lakes and rivers hinders power production).

This drawback of hydel power production can be overcome by the development of an integrated power grid. An integrated power grid is bringing into a common network power stations fed on different sources of power.

In this way thermal power stations can supplement hydel power during periods of low water supply or a breakdown on any kind. This helps to maintain a power supply on a regular basis free from marked fluctuations.

Essay on “Petroleum found in India”– (1235 Words)

Petroleum, the mineral which is in the greatest demand in modern industry, supplies half the world’s energy requirements. It provides fuel for heat and lighting, lubricants for machinery and raw materials for a number of manufacturing industries.

In comparison with other fuels, such as coal, it has several advantages; it occurs in great abundance; it is easily obtained; it can be cheaply distributed; and above all, it has the widest range of domestic as well as industrial uses. It is often, therefore, referred to as ‘black gold’.

It was first used where seepages occurred at the surface. In ancient times, the Chinese, who encountered oil in drilling for salt in brine wells, used it as fuel to evaporate the brine.

The Egyptians used it for embalming the dead before burial. But, the first man to have really ‘struck oil’ was probably Samuel M. Kier, who in 1848 found it by chance in wells on the banks of the Allegheny River of Pennsylvania. He named it after the local Indians as Seneca oil.

The modern petroleum industry recognizes three principal grades of crude oil.

(i) Paraffin-Base Oil:

This contains a high percentage of the lighter hydrocarbons such as methane and yields the commercially more valued products, e.g. petrol, paraffin and high grade lubricating oils.

(ii) Asphalt-Base Oil:

This consists mainly of the heavier hydrocarbons with a viscous, asphaltic base. It is of less commercial significance because it yields little motor-oil during distillation. Much of its residue is in the form of asphalt or bitumen, almost in solid state.

(iii) Mixed-Base Oil:

This is an intermediate group with mixed properties of the lighter and heavier oils. It carries a high percentage of naphthene and is graded 20° on the Baume scale. It is used both for lubricants and fuel oils.

The origin of oil is still not definitely known, though it is generally presumed to be derived from organic material. Analysis of oil samples shows that it is formed from the decomposition by anaerobic bacteria of innumerable small marine plant and animal organisms trapped in sediments as they were deposited on the sea-bed.

Some scientists believe that when an accumulation of sedimentary rocks in the ocean depths is compacted, the pressure generates heat which transforms the decaying matter into tiny droplets of oil.

Others think that oil may have formed relatively rapidly after the organisms were trapped in the sediments and that heat or pressure was not necessary to the process. Oil formation in sedimentary rocks has been going on since the beginning of geological time and is probably continuing today, and unlike many other minerals which require special conditions for their occurrence, oil can be found in many different rocks of various ages and is very widely distributed. Wherever there are areas of marine sedimentary rocks such as mudstone, shale, sandstone or limestone oil may be found in some of the strata.

The oil is trapped in the pore-spaces of the rocks and thus, rocks such as sandstone with a high proportion of spaces are most likely to contain oil. When the rocks originally formed under the sea, not only oil was trapped but also sea-water.

This also remains in the pore spaces of the rock. Because oil is lighter than water it usually lies above it in the rock. Above the oil are the lightest hydrocarbons forming natural gas. Thus, oil is usually found in a water-oil-gas sequence, though sometimes only gas is found, and no oil exists.

While petroleum, like coal, can occur in rocks of any geological age from Cambrian to Pliocene, the most productive petroliferous strata in Asia are of Jurassic to Miocene Age. The oil is found at the summits of anticlines or dome-like folds and is obtained by drilling through the overlying rocks to the summit of the fold. The degree of porosity of reservoir rocks plays an important part in the underground storage of petroleum.

Mode of Occurance:

Petroleum occurs in the pores and minute interstices of sands and in crevices in limestone which are of shallow water, usually marine origin. Most of the oil reserves in India, are associated with anticlines and fault traps in the sedimentary rock formation of tertiary times, about 3 million years ago. Some recent sediment less than one million years also show evidence of incipient oil. Oil and gas do not occur normally at their original sites.

Being lighter than water they collect in the anticlines of fault traps above water surface. Gas usually occurs above oil in most structures and a gas seepage, therefore, is taken as an indication of the occurrence of oil, although in many cases oil does not occur at such places.

About 14.1 lakh sq. kms or about 42 per cent of the total area of the country is covered with sedimentary rocks, out of which about 10 lakh sq. kms form marine basins of Mesozoic and Tertiary times. India’s offshore areas have Mesozoic and Tertiary rocks of marine origin spread over 2.5 lakh km2 upto a water depth of 10 metres and 3.2 lakh km2 up to 200 metres,

the probability of oil occurrences is rated high in these rocks (divided into 10 basins), particularly the Cambay region where oil was discovered in Bombay High in 1974.

Regions:

The entire oil production of India so far comes from the Assam-Arakan belt, the Gujarat, Cambay belt and and the Bombay High offshore Zone. The first one extends from the Dehang Basin in the extreme north-east of Assam along the outer flanks of the Hill ranges forming the eastern border of Bhitra and Surma valley to the Andaman Nicobar Islands in the Bay of Bengal.

The second belt extends from Mahesana (Gujarat) in the north to the continental shelf offcast Ratnagiri (Maharashtra) in the south and includes the several important oilfields in Gujarat and the Bombay High and other newly discovered oilfields offshore. Againt a 63 per cent supply of primary commercial energy through hydrocarbons in the world in the case of India, it is 44.9 per cent (36% oil and 8.9% natural gas).

Oil Refineries:

Crude oil extracted in the country and imported from abroad is refined and processed into various products like light distillates, kerosene, diesel, lubricants, bitumen and heavy ends in oil refineries.

India witnessed spectacular growth in refining sector in the recent past. As of June 2011 there are a total of 21 refineries in the country comprising 17 in the public sector, 3 in the private sector and 1 as a joint venture of BPCL and Oman Oil Company. The total refining capacity in the country as on 1.06.2011 stands at 193.386 MMTAPA.

Indian Oil Corporation Limited and its subsidiaries Chennai Petroleum Corporation Limited and Bongaigaon Refinary anbd Petrochemicals limited (10), Bharat Petroelum Corporation Limited and its subsidiaries Kochi Refineries Limited and Numaligarh Limited (3), Hindustan Petroleum Corporation Limited (2), Mangalore Refinary and Petrochemicals Limited (1) and Reliance Petroleum Limited (1) Mini Refinary at Tatipaka (Andhra Pradesh) is owned by Oil and Natural Gas Corporation Limited.

Short Essay on “Thermal Power in India” – (448 Words)

When power is produced by burning other fuels such as coal, petroleum, or natural gas in thermal generators or specially designed furnaces, it is called thermal electricity.

Thermal Power of which 53% is based on coal and 9.46% on gas, has growing dominant. There are over 310 thermal power plants in India. Assam, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Uttar Pradesh and West Bengal produce mainly thermal power.

Other significant producers are Haryana, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Orissa and Delhi. In the total production of electricity in India, the share of thermal electricity is about 70 per cent.

1. The generation of electricity from fuels like coal, petroleum or nuclear minerals is known as thermal electricity.

2. The generation of thermal electricity depends on the availability of minerals like coal, petroleum and nuclear minerals. These are exhaustible and non-renewable resources. At this rapid pace of consumption their supplies are declining and we need to develop alternate source of producing electricity.

3. Since thermal electricity is produced from exhaustible and non-renewable minerals, it is more expensive to produce.

4. The process of producing thermal electricity is not very environment friendly. Woste disposal adds to the cost of producing thermal electricity. The burning of coal leaves a large residue of ash, while the use of petroleum may cause pollution of the atmosphere and the use of nuclear mine also requires safe waste disposal to protect the environment from harmful radiation.

Factors Affecting the Location of Thermal Electricity Generating Plants:

Since thermal plants are dependent on a supply of solid or liquid fuels they are advantageously sites on coalfields, oil or natural gas fields, or at importing ports where oil is refined.

When electricity is generated, a great deal of heat is released and therefore much water is required for cooling purposes. Thus, nearness to a large river, lake, estuary or a coastal site will be advantageous. Location near the main markets for electricity (such as industrial centres, towns with a large domestic power demand) has several advantages.

Setting up of Ultra Mega Power Projects:

The Ministry of Power, Government of India in association with Central Electricity Authority and Power Finance Corporation has launched an initiative for development of Coal based Ultra Mega Power Projects in India, each with a capacity of 4000 MW or more. Initially five sites were identified by CEA in different states for the proposed Ultra Mega Power Projects.

These include two pithead sites one each in Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh and three coastal sites in Gujarat, Karnataka and Maharashtra. On the request of the State Government of Orissa and Andhra Pradesh, two more sites have been identified one in lb- valley and other in the coastal region of Krishnapatnam.

Major Oil Fields Found in India – Essay

The valley of the lower Indus has gradually supplanted and succeeded this original Tertiary gulf.

Assam Gulf:

This commenced from Digboi- and proceeded along the southern side on the Brahmaputra valley, to Sylhet, and along the western flank of Arakan, through eastern Bengal to Akyab Gulf. The part southwest of Sylhet is now buried under alluvium of the Meghna and the delta of the Ganga.

The surface indications of oil and gas occur at intervals from the Arakan coast northeastwards through the Chittagong region to the Surma valley and thence along the north-western side of the Naga hills, almost to the extreme north-east of the Upper Assam valley.

Through vigorous prospecting, four oil-fields have so far been discovered, Digboi, Naharkatiya, Hugrijan and Moran in Upper Assam. In these areas deep test wells put down by the Oil and Natural Gas Commission have shown promise of oil and gas deposits capable of years of sustained production. Crude oil from Assam contains a large proportion of gasoline, paraffin and naphthalene. It is free from sulphur.

The Digboi Field:

The oil pools occur along the crest of a sharply folded anticline to the south of the Naga thrust. The productive oil-sands in the Digboi field belong to over 20 separate horizons showing much lateral variation. The Digboi oil has an average specific gravity of 0.85 and generally has a high wax content.lt contains 9% gasoline, 38% kerosene, 49% lubricating oils and 3% fuel oil.

The Naharkatiya Field:

A deep well drilled on a structural summit pointed out by a sesmic survey in the Brahmaputra alluvium, about 32 kms from Digboi, has brought to light the existence of the new promising oil-fields of Naharkatiya. Subsequent detailed seismic surveys have shown that the structure of the field is much more complex than was thought at first, the tertiary strata being cut through by many faults of small and large throws.

This new field may have a potential production of 2.5 million tonnes annually. The oil in this area is of mixed paraffin and asphalt base with an average specific gravity of 0.850, yielding excellent paraffin, wax, lubricating oil some bitumen, and various other by-products.

The Moran-Hugrijan Field:

Drilling has proved an oil-bearing Barail horizon at a depth of 3,355 m on a faulted dome near Moran, some 40 km southwest of Naharkatiya. Exploratory drilling is in progress in Moran and adjacent areas in Upper Assam.

Moran’s potential may be estimated at one million tonnes per annum. While drilling continues in Upper Assam, extensive geophysical prospecting is being carried out to locate oil-bearing strata elsewhere in the same area under the Brahmaputra alluvium.

Bombay High:

The reserve of petroleum (crude) at Bombay High has been estimated at 330.35 million tonnes. The greatest success achieved by the ONGC with respect to offshore surveys for oil was that of Mumbai High in 1974. It is located on the continental shelf off the coast of Maharashtra about 176 km north­west of Mumbai. Oil is taken from the depth of over 1,400 metre with the help of a specially designed platform known as Sagar Samrat.

Gujarat:

Geophysical investigations during the last 13 years have proved the existence, underneath the alluvium of north Gujarat and the Rann of Kachchh, of a wide basin of post-Nummulitic sediments capable of enclosing productive petroliferous horizons, resting upon the faulted surface of the Traps. It stretches from Surat district, across the Gulf of Cambay, to beyond Bhavnagar in Saurashtra.

Drilling tests, including offshore drilling, to establish the commercial possibilities of oil-fields within the Cambay basin are being carried out. The north boundary of the Cambay basin probably extends beyond Ahmednagar and the Rann of Kachchh, a considerable distance towards southern Rajasthan, while its southern extent buried under the shallow water of the Gulf of Cam-bay, may be much beyond Piram Island.

Gravity and seismic methods of exploring the structure of the floor rocks under the Rann of Kachchh and some alluvial tracts of northern Gujarat are being employed for further survey of the basin. The Oil and Natural Gas Commission since 1958 has drilled test wells near Ahmedabad at Khambhat Lunej and confirmed the occurrence of a commercially exploitable oil-field.

In 1960 oil was struck in the first well at Ankleshwar, nearly 160 kms south of Cambay town; it has indicated the existence of a new oil-field, capacity 2.8 million tonnes per annum. Pt. Jawaharlal Nehru called it the foundation of prosperity. Gujarat can, therefore, be reasonably expected to be an oil-producing area in the future. The main oil belt extends from Surat to Amreti Kachchh, Vadodara, Bharuch, Surat, Ahmedabad, Kheda, Mehsana are the main oil producing districts.

Jammu and Kashmir:

There are possibilities of occurrence of gas and oil in the Jammu region, particularly along the Ravi-Jwalamukhi section, Nurpur, Dharamsala and Bilaspur in Himachal Pradesh.

Tamil Nadu:

A small gas occurrence reported in the Tertiary sediments, buried under alluvium in Tanjore district, lends support to the possibilities of occurrence of petroleum in the Cauvery delta. Test wells are being drilled. In addition to this, many private and joint sector refinary projects are there, mainly Reliance Petroleum (Jamnagar), International Petro (Parmar) Ashoka Leyland, Hindiya (Orissa) and Essar Petro (Vadinar).

Oilfields in North East India

Digboi north east of Tipam hill sin Dibrugarh distirct, is the oldest oilfield.
Naharkatiya fields started in 1953
Moranhugugan started in 1956, 40 km, from soutwest of Naharkatiya
Rudrasagar, Sibasagar, Lakura, Gaieki, Badapur, Barhola and Anguri are newly discovered oilfields.
In Arunachal Pradesh oilfields are in Manabhum, Kharsang, Charali
In Tripura, oilfields are in Mamunbhang, Baramura, Dantamura, Subhang, Manu Ampibagar Amarpurdambura

In Western India (Gujarat):

Ankleshwar 80 km of Vadodara, JL Nehru called Ankleshwar of fountain of prosperity
Khambat or Lunej (near ahmadabad) field started in 1958
Ahmadabad and Kalol

Offshore Oilfields of India:

Mumbai high, Sagar Samrat is its platform
Bassein
Aliabet near Bhavnagar (Production is largest in Mumbai high 62%, Gujarat 20%, Assam 16.5% then in Tamil Nadu 1%)

Oil Refineries in Private Sector:

Reliance Petroleum in Jamnagar
International Petrol Parmar in Surat
Ashok Leylands in Daitori in Orissa
Essar Petro in Vadimar, Gujarat
Black Gold in Vyag
Petrodyne in Karaikal, Pondichery
Jindl ferro Alloy in Vizag
Portmardi TIDCO in Tuticorin, Tamil Nadu
Abon LLyod Chales in Tuticorin
Moplac Udyog in Haldia

Essay on Natural Gas Reserves of India

Since gas is essential for production of oil and is also valuable as a source of fuel on the oil-fields, care is taken to prevent waste of gas which was formerly so common in oil-fields. Gross production of Natural Gas in the country at 52.22 billion cubic meter during 2010-11.

The reserves of natural gas estimated in India from Bombay High, Assam, Gujarat, Rajasthan have been estimated, respectively, at 400.99 billion cu.m, 97.82, 41.26 and 0.74 million cu.m. The total Indian reserve comes to 540.81 billion cu.m. The domestic production may not go beyond 85 m cu.m. a day as against the demand upto 188 m cu. m. a day by the year 2005.

The huge gap between the demand and the indigenous production will have to be filled through imports. Gas output is being increased through the development of the South Bassein and Gandhar fields, the main areas of production so far and new fields such as S-1 and B-55 in the Western Offshore region of the ONGC. The increasing demand has forced the Government to arrange for imports from west Asia.

Gas from the Naharkatiya, Cambay and Ankleshwar fields is being piped for use in factories at various centres in Assam and Gujarat to the extent of several million cubic metres a day. Natural gas is finding increasing use as fuel and in the manufacture of fertilizers, synthetic rubber and chemical products. Natural gas is found associated with or without petroleum.

About 23 billion cubic metres of natural gas is consumed in India. Large reserves of natural gas have been discovered in Andhra Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat, Assam, and Andaman and Nicobar Islands. The Andaman reserves alone have 47.6 million cubic metres of natural gas. A huge natural gas field has recently been discovered in the Krishna-Godavari basin.

India produces about 27,860 million cubic metres of gas per year. Over three-fourth of the production comes from Mumbai High. 10 per cent from Gujarat, 7 per cent from Assam and the rest from Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Tripura and Rajasthan. The gas supplied for household use is called LPG (liquified petroleum gas), and the one used for running vehicles is called CNG (compressed natural gas). The recoverable reserves of natural gas (1 April, 2001) are estimated at 638 billion cubic metres. The production of natural gas in 2000-01 was 29.477 billion cubic metres.

Transportation, processing and marketing of natural gas in India is done by the Gas Authority of India Ltd. (GAIL). It is the largest company in India for marketing natural gas. It operates over 4200 kms of pipelines in the country and supplies gas to power plants and fertiliser factories. This company has seven LPG recovery plants—2 in Madhya Pradesh, 2 in Gujarat and one each in Assam, Maharashtra and Uttar Pradesh. It supplies gas to about 500 industrial units in different parts of the country.

India has developed a large network of pipelines for transportation of petrluem and gas. In recent years, India has become a big producer, consumer and importer of petroleum products.

At the current rate of consumption, India’s known reserves of oil will last for about 30-40 years only. Import of petroleum and its products will put heavy strain on our economic development. Transport sector consumes about 50 per cent of the total consumption of petroleum products; road transport alone consumes 37% of this consumption. 16 to 20% of the oil products are consumed by industries.

Essay on the Non-metallic Minerals Found in India

With regard to their geological occurrence, some are found as constituents, original secondary, of the igneous rocks, formed by chemical agencies; while others occur as vein stones or gangue-materials occuring in association with mineral veins or lodes or filling up pockets or cavities in the rocks.

Mica:

India is the world’s leading producer of mica and accounts for about 60% of global mica (Abrak) trade. Mica is a group name for several minerals which, though differing in chemical composition and physical properties are characterized by their ability to split readily into very thin plates or flakes which are more or less though elastic and transparent according to variety. The main varieties of mica are:

1. Muscovite (white mica or potash mica)

2. Phlogopite (amber mica)

3. Biotite (black mica)

4. Zinnwaldite (lithium iron mica)

5. Fuschsite (chrome mica)

The principal groups of mica found in India are muscovite, phlogopite and biotite, all being hydro- silicates of these, two account for almost the entire reserves and production. Though Muscovite is a most widely distributed mineral in the crystalline rocks of India, marketable mica is restricted to a few pegmatite veins only, carrying large perfect crystals, free from wrinkling or foreign inclusions.

In block form, it is white, reddish or greenish in colour and is called white mica. Its chief use is as an insulating material in electric goods, another as a substitute for glass in glazing. Mica was known to the ancients who used it in certain Ayurvedic medicines.

Most rocks contain little specks of glistening mica; but those are not in use. To be useful, mica has to be in ‘books’ of atleast 25 mm square size each transparent and free from cracks. The phlogophite also called amber mica, is pale yellowish brown in colour; it is less transparent than muscovite mica. The biotite mica is usually black in thick crystals.

The muscovite and biolite micas occur in small flakes in many igneous rocks including gneisses and schists; they occur is some cases as secondary minerals in metamorphic rocks. Muscovite mica occurs mostly in coarse framed pegmatite dykes of acid igneous origin. Phlogophite, on the other hand, is found only in igneous rocks, particularly pyroxenites which are intruded into metamorphosed limestones and gneisses.

Production and Distribution:

India is the world’s leading producer of sheet mica and accounts for about 60 per cent of global mica trade. Important mica bearing pegmatite occurs in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Bihar, and Rajasthan.

The total in situ reserves of mica in the country are placed at 59,065 tonnes. The in situ reserves of mica in Andhra Pradesh are 42,626 thousand tonnes, Bihar 12,938 tonnes, Jharkhand 1,494 tonnes and in Rajasthan 2,007 tonnes. Most of the mica product comes from Bihar, Jharkhand, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan. India has monopoly in the production of mica, about 60 per cent of world’s total production.

Bihar:

Out of the total production in the country, more than 50% comes from the state of Bihar. The Gaya and Monghyz areas in Bihar and Hazaribagh in Jharkhand are known for the mica production. The mica belt is about 32 kms in width and contains perhaps the richest deposits of high quality ruby-mica in the world.

The main centres of mica production in the belt are in Kodarma reserve forest, Dhorhakola, Domchanch, Dhab Gawan, Tisri, Chakai and Chaka-pathal (Mahesri). Though Bihar is the leading producer of mica, yet mica is often commercially spoken of as ‘Bengal Mica’.

Jharkhand:

Mica occurs in Palamau, Ranchi and Singhbhum districts. In the pegmatite veins of the Hazaribagh region, lepidolite lethia mica, the source of lithium oxide occurs.

Andhra Pradesh:

Mica is also produced in Nellore (64 km long and 16 km wide) and Guntur districts of Andhra Pradesh. Guntur in Andhra Pradesh is the centre for splitting and dressing mica. Scrap and waste mica is changed into insulation bricks at Nellore (Andhra Pradesh) Andhra Pradesh are next to Bihar in the total mica production in India. The other districts with workable mica deposits are Vishakapatnam, West Godavari, Krishna (Tiruvur) and Khammam (Kallur). Ruby mica is also found west of Tiruvur and six other localities in Krishna district.

Gujarat:

Mica occurs in Banaskantha district in Gobadia hills in Chhota Udaipur, Baroda district and in Devgad Baria. The occurrences are sporadic in nature and do not hold promise for commercial exploitation.

Rajasthan:

Rajasthan is the third largest producer of mica. There is a long mica producing belt stretching from Udaipur to Ajmer in which Ajmer and Bhilwara are. The chief producing centres.

It’s most important centres are in Bhilwara, Udaipur, Jaipur and Tonk districts. The less important areas are in Alwar, Bharatpur, Jodhpur, Kishangarh, and Sirohi districts. The mineral occurs in coarse granite pegmatitesa, differentiated into quartz cores and feldspathic mica bearing margins.

Uttar Pradesh:

The few mica deposits known so far possess poor grade greenish mica with cracks and stains. These are found in Bandi Khal and Kunet districts while small books of ruby mica are reported from Mirzapur district.

Others:

The other areas with small deposits of mica are Kerala (Alleppey and Kollam), Tamil Nadu (Nilgiri, Coimbatore, Salem and Tiruchirapalli), Madhya Pradesh (Belaghat, Bilaspur, Bastar, Surguja and Chhindwara) and Uttar Pradesh (Mirzapur).

Muscovite deposits occur in a number of localities in Tiruchirapalli, Salem, Coimbatore and the Niigiris districts of Tamil Nadu and Balaghat, Bastar, Narsimhapur, Chhindwara and Sarguja districts of Madhya Pradesh.

Gypsum:

Gypsum stands next to coal and iron as a mineral of great importance in the industrial economy of the country. Gypsum is a hydrated sulphate of calcium. As a colourless or white opaque mineral in the form of massive lamps, or transparent plates, gypsum occurs abundantly in nature in sedimentary formations. In some cases, it occurs as transparent crystals (sclenite) associated with clays.

Gypsum being naturally occurring sulphate of calcium finds its most popular use in making of ammonium sulphate. It is also used as a surface dressing for land with considerable benefit to certain crops. It is also an important constituent of cement, improving its durability. Plaster of Paris, partition blocks, sheets and tiles, insulating boards, stuccos and lattices are manufactured from gypsum. Alabaster a massive variety of gypsum is employed for artistic statutory and ornamental purpose.

This mineral is found in sedimentary rocks. It occurs abundantly in massive lumps or transparent plates in sedimentary formations. In some cases, it occurs as transparent crystals associated with clays.

There are five varieties of gypsum which are (a) pure gypsum or selentine which is crystalline in character and is transparent (b) albaster, a dense, massive granular and transluscent variety; (c) satispar, a fibrous variety having a silky lustre; (d) gypsite, an earthy, soft, impure variety containing abudnant small gypsum crystals scattered through clayey or sandy soil; and (e) rock gypsum, a coarse granular, compact massive variety of sedimentary rocks.

Production and Distribution:

The in situ reserves of gypsum are estimated at 383 million tonnes. Out of this two millions are of surgical/plaster grade. 92 million tonnes of fertiliser/pottery grade, 76 million tonnes of cement/paint grade, 13 million tonnes of soil reclamation grade and the rest is unclassified. The production of gypsum is confined to Rajasthan, Tamil Nadu, Jammu and Kashmir, and Gujarat, Rajasthan is the main producer of gypsum followed by Jammu and Kashmir.

The well-known regions of gypsum occurrences are in Jaisalmer, Jodhpur and Bikaner and Jammu and Kashmir which accounts for nearly 86% of the gypsum reserves.

Rajasthan:

In the tertiary clays and shales of the region, important gypsum occurrences are in Jodhpur, Nagpur and Bikaner. It has nearly 39% of the total reserves. It is also found in Ganga Nagar, Bharatpur, Churu, Jaisalmer, Barmer, Pali and Jodhpur districts.

Jasmar village in Bikaner district has India’s single largest gypsum deposits constituting 17% of the total deposits. The other important deposits in the district occur at Luncaranlar where they are mostly of selentine type and at Dhireva, Jaisalmer, Kaoni, Dhaleran Bharru and Harkassar.

Tamil Nadu:

Gypsum deposits are reported in several districts in Tamil Nadu. This veins of gypsum associated with clay and chalky material occur from Tappy and Peria Kurukhai in the south of Chaittali and Asur in the north in Tiruchirapalli district.

Compact gypsum occurs at Nambakkuruchi, Garudamangalam, Sri Kanbur and Kerai in the same districts. It is found as modules in black soil tracts south of Palladam and in the form of conceptions and nodules in the soil in Kokkadi and Kilakurai in Ramanathapuram districts.

Punjab and Himachal Pradesh Border:

Deposits of gypsum occur in the lower spiti valley, especially on the left bank of the spiti opposite to selkar. Small quantities of gypsum occur near subathu on the border of Himachal Pradesh and Punjab.

Uttarakhand:

Beds of gypsum are found in old lacustrine deposits and are of considerable economic interest. The mineral occurs in Sera (North of Lachhaman Jhoola) in Tehri Garhwal, Dehradun, Nainital, Gurucchatti and Kharari Chatti areas in Garhwal districts.

Jammu and Kashmir:

A massive variety of gypsum i.e. Alabster, is found between Ijara and Islamabad north of the Jhelum valley near Bambyar village. It occurs as replacement in dolomite and limestone in Uri tehsil of Baramula district.

Large deposits of good quality gypsum occur in Doda district near Ramban, Batote and Assan. Here rich deposits occur as lenticular bands in the Precambrian salakhal schists or with nummulitic limestone of Eocene Age.

Andhra Pradesh:

The only notable occurrence is that of crystalline gypsum (selentine) in the marine belts in the border area of Pulicat Lake near Sulpureta in Vellore district, the other areas being Guntur, Adilabad and Prakasham districts.

Gujarat:

Important deposits occur in Bhavanagar district near Miani and Keshav in Porbunder area, Kadiali in Junagadh district and in Jamnagar district. Gypsum in veins and thin beds and as crystal distributed in sedimentary state is also found in Saurashtra and Kutch. Hydrated calcium sulphate is obtained as a by-product of salt industry in Gujarat. It is purer than mined gypsum and preferred in several industries.

In addition to mineral gypsum, sea water and phosphoric acid plants form important sources of by-product gypsum. Chemical plants manufacturing hydrofluoric acid and refining borax are the other sources of byproduct gypsum. Marine gypsum is recovered from salt pans during the processing of common salts in coastal regions of Gujarat and Tamil Nadu.

Phospho gypsum is obtained as by-product while manufacturing phosphoric acid by wet process employed by thirteen principal plants located in different parts of the country. Fluro-gypsum is obtained from three plants as a by-product while manufacturing aluminium fluoride and hydro-fluoric acid based on fluorspar. By product boro-gypsum is obtained from a plant which refines calcium borates and produces boric acid and borax.

Lime Stone:

Limestone is an important mineral and occurs in many formations, some of which are entirely composed of them. Limestone is associated with rocks composed of either calcium carbonate, the double carbonate of calcium and, magnesium or mixture of these two constituents. It also contains small quantities of silica, alumina, iron oxides phosphorus and sulphur.

Limestone deposits are of sedimentary origin and exist in almost all the geological sequences from Pre-Cambrian to recent except in Gondwana. In the Cuddapah, Bijawar, Khondalite and Aravalli groups, limestones attain considerable development, some of them being of great beauty and strength. Vindhya limestones are extensively quarried in Rajasthan and form a source of building stone as valued as that of lime and cement.

Production and Distribution:

The total in situ reserves of limestone of all categories and grades are placed at 1, 69,941 million tonnes. The total conditional reserves have been estimated at 3,713 million tonnes. The major share of its production comes from Madya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Andhra Pradesh, Gujarat, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Himachal Pradesh, Orissa, Bihar, Uttarakhand and Uttar Pradesh.

The remaining part comes from Assam, Haryana, Jammu and Kashmir, Kerala and Meghalaya.The Production of limestone was at 238 million tonnes in the year 2010-11 As much as 87% of the total output in the year 2010-11 was contributed by seven principal States; Andhra Pradesh 22% Rajisthan 18% Madhy Pradesh (13%) Gujarat (9%) Tamil Nadu Chhattisgarh and Karnataka (8%) each.

Although almost all the states of India produce some quantity of limestone, about three-fourths of the total limestone of India is produced by five states of Madhya Pradesh, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Gujarat and Karnataka.

Andhra Pradesh:

Cuddapah, Guntur, Krishna, Khammam, Kurnool, West and East Godawari and Nalgonda districts of Andhra Pradesh possess about 20% of the total reserves of cement grade limestone in the country. The great thickness of limestone together with shales and quartzites, constituting the Palnad series of Hyderabad and adjoining areas shows calvarisations in the rock-types. But in the main conforms to the argillaceous and calcareous nature of the system.

Rajasthan:

Vindhyan limestones are extensively queried in Rajasthan. Ajmer, Jaipur, Pali, Sawai Madhopur, Jhunjhunu, Banswara, Jodhpur, Sirohi and Bundi district of Rajasthan contain about 13% of the total reserves. Flaggy limestone in the state, known popularly as ‘Kota’ stone occurs in varying colours from light brown to blue and grey with fine-grained texture near Suket, Kumet, Salelkheri, Hirakheri, Morak and Kurka.

Karnataka:

Gulbarga, Bijapur and Shimoga districts of Karnataka have 22% of the reserves. Limestones from Shahabad, Wadi and places in Gulbarga districts of Karnataka state are widely used. The other main producing districts are Chitradurg, Tumkur, Belgaum, Bijapur, Mysore and Shimoga.

Madhya Pradesh:

Madhya Pradesh possesses 36% of the country’s total reserves of fluxgrade limestone, most of these in Bilaspur, Jabalpur, Rewa, Satna and Raipur districts. It is the largest producer of limestone.

Gujarat:

Junagarh, Amreli, Kutch, Banas Kantha and Surat districts of Gujarat have about 11% of the reserves. The rock known as Junagarh limestone is mainly composed of fragments of calcareious shells cemented by lime. The other important producing districts are Kheda and Junagarh.

Others:

There are sizeable deposits in Meghalaya, Khasi and Jaintia Hills districts; in Assam, Nowgong and Sibsagar districts; in Maharashtra, Yeotmal, Chandrapurand Nanded districts; in Uttranachal, Dehradun, Pithoragarh and Mirzapur in Uttar Pradesh; in Tamil Nadu, Salem, Tirunelveli, Tiruchirapalli, Ramanathapuram, Coimbatore and Madhurai districts.

The other important districts are the Bilaspur, Kangara and Chamba in Himachal Pradesh, Mahendragarh and Ambala in Haryana, Nagawn and Sibsagar in Assam, Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri in West Bengal and Anantnag and Jammu in Jammu and Kashmir. The nummulitic limestones of the extra-peninsular districts, viz., Hazara, Punjab and Assam are an enormous repository of pure limestone.

Dolomite:

Limestone with more than 10 per cent MgCo3 is called dolomitic; when the percentage rises to 45, they are true dolomites. Both these are fairly distributed in the Himalayas and other parts of India. Dolomite, a double carbonate of calcium and magnesium finds application principally in the iron and steel industry. Economic uses of dolomite are chiefly metallurgical, as refractories; as blast furnace flux; as a source of Co2 gas and magnesium salts and other minor uses.

Production and Distribution:

Dolomite occurrences are widespread in almost all parts of the country. The total in situ reserves of all grades of dolomite are 7,349 million tonnes. The major share of about 90 per cent reserves is distributed in the states of Madhya Pradesh, Chhattisgarh, Orissa, Gujarat, Karnataka, West Bengal, Uttar Pradesh and Maharashtra. The reserves of BF and SMS grades are large, but those of refractory grade at 425 million tonnes constitute only 5.8 per cent of the all India reserve.

The production of dolomite at 5065 thousand tonnes 2010-11. Andhra Pradesh (21%) Chhattisgarh (27%) and (Odisha 22%) were the principal producing states of dolomite. The country’s total reserves of dolomite are estimated at 4,967.5 million tonnes, of which 56% are located in Odisha and Madhya Pradesh. The other main dolomite producing states are Gujarat and Bihar.

Odisha:

Birmitrapur area in the Sundargarh district (Orissa) has over 20% of the country’s total reserves. Other deposits in this district are in Hathibari, Khatepur, Beldih and Lifripara. Orissa is the largest producer of dolomite. In Gangapur area, they occur near Sukra and extend for a total length of about 100 kms. The Kendujhar district also possesses dolomite.

Chattisgarh:

A total of 877 million tones of dolomite have been estimated from various parts of the state. Dolomite Occurs in Bastar, Bilaspur and Janjgir.

Madhya Pradesh:

Dolomite occurs in the district of Balaghat, Bastar, Bilaspur, Chhindwara, Durg, Hoshangabad, Jabalpur and Jhabua. Madhya Pradesh accounts for 34% of the total reserves. Important deposits occur at Chhatane, Hirri, Pendidih, Dhurarabatta, Atta and Baradwar in Bilaspur district and Kodwa-Mohabatta in Durg district.

Uttarakhand:

Dolomite occurs in the Banda, Dehradun, Nainital and Tehri Garhwal districts.

Karnataka:

Deposits of dolomite are found in the districts of Belgaum, Bijapur, Chitradurga, Mysore, Uttar Kannada and Tumkur.

Maharashtra:

The districts of Chandrapur, Nagpur and Yeotmal have been reported to have recoverable deposits of all grades of dolomite. The Rajpur locality in Yeotmal district possesses over 4% of the country’s total reserves.

Gujarat:

Gujarat is the third largest producer of dolomite in India accounting for over 14 per cent of the total production of the country. The districts of Bhavnagar and Vadodara in Gujarat are known to have recoverable reserves of dolomite estimated to be 696.33 million tonnes.

Jharkhand:

Dolomite occurs in bands to the north of Chaibasa in Singhbhum district and near Banjari in Rohtas district. Some dolomite occurs in Palamau district.

Tamil Nadu:

Dolomites of Salem and Tirunelveli are used for the manufacture of bleaching powder and other chemicals off the coast near Tuticorin, there are high grade coralline limestone-deposits used by chemical industry.

Others:

Dolomite is consumed in iron and steel, ferro-alloys, fertiliser, glass, alloy steel and several other industries. Dolomite produced at Baradam, Hardi and Hirri in Bilaspur district (Madhya Pradesh) is supplied to the steel plant at Bhilai. The production from Birmitrapur is consumed by the steel plants at Rourkela, Jamshedpur and Burnpur. Most of the production in Gujarat is pulverised into chips.

Among the other producers are Banda, Dehradun, Mirzapur, Nainital and Tehri Garhwal in Uttarakhand; Anandpur, Kurnool and Khammam in Andhra Pradesh; Kamang in Arunachal Pradesh; Shimla, Solan, Mandi in Himachal Pradesh; Ajmer, Alwar, Bhilwara, Jaipur, Jaisalmer, Jhunjhunu, Jodhpur, Nagaur, Pali, Sawai Madhopur, Sikar and Udaipur in Rajasthan.

Steatite:

Also known as talc and sandstone, steatite is a hydrous silicate of magnesium. It occurs in ultra basic rocks and metamorphosed dolomitic limestone chiefly in Archaean and Dharwar rocks of the Peninsula. In its geological relations, steatite is often associated with dolomite and other magnesian rocks. Being massive compact, structure less and easily scratchable, steatite is put to a number of uses.

Because of its smooth uniform structure and soapy feel, it is popuarly known as soapstone, sometimes called ‘potstone’. Paper industry, soap and detergents, insecticides, ceramics, cosmetics, fertilizers, paints, rubber, textile and vanaspati are some of the important industries in which steatite is used.

Production and Distribution:

Steatite mainly occurs in Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh. The production of steatite in the year 2010-11 was at 896 thousand tonnes. Rajasthan the principal state accounted for 74% of the total production in 2010-11.

Andhra Pradesh:

In Anantapur distirct, a very fine variety occurs; the estimated reserves are a little over 1. 4 million tonnes. There are also several other occurrences of steatite in the Kurnool, Nellore, Chittoor, Cuddapah, Khammam and Karimnagar districts. The steatite from Kurnool district is said to be of ‘Lava-grade’. The metamorphosed magnesium limestone of the Cuddapah system contains most of the steatite reserves.

Jharkhand:

Steatite occurs in the districts of Giridih and Singhbhum.

Karnataka:

Occurrences of steatite have been reported from the districts of Chikmaglur, Hassan, Mandhy, Mysore, Raichur and Tumkur districts; the total recoverable reserves in the state being 7.415 million tonnes.

Madhya Pradesh and Chhattisgarh:

Steatite occurs in large quantitites in the ‘Marble Rocks’ near Jabalpur. There are also deposits near Rupaund on the Katni-Bilaspur branch of the South Eastern Railway. A workable deposit of talc occurs near Kumbi in Alirajpur, Jhabua district. Occurrences are also reported from the districts of Dhar, Durg and Narsimhpur.

Kerala:

Steatite deposits are located in the districts of Cannanore and Wynad where 8.131 million tonnes of recoverable reserves of steatite have been estimated.

Maharashtra:

The districts of Bhandara, Ratnagiri and Sindhudurg posses recoverable reserves of steatite estimated at 7.233 million tonnes.

Odisha:

Deposits occur in Balasore (Nilgiri), Sundargarh (Bonai), Cuttack (Sukinda), Keonjhar and Sambalpur districts.

Rajasthan:

The state possesses the largest reserves of steatite in the country. There are around 152 large and small deposits scattered throughout the state. The large deposits of superior quality steatite occur in Gisgarh, Morra-Bhanderi and Dogeta in Jaipur district, and Jeoria (Ghevaria), Lakhavali and Deopura in Udaipur district. Occurrences are recorded from Alwar, Banswara, Ajmer, Bharatpur, Dungarpur, Bhilwara, Chittorgarh, Jhunjhunu, Siroly, Sawai Madhopur and Tonk district.

Tamil Nadu:

Soapstone occurrences are known near Tiruchirapalli and from Omalur taluk of Salem district. Besides above, steatite deposits are reported from the districts of Coimbatore and North Arcot.

Uttarakhand:

It occurs in association with magnesite deposits in Bhageshwar, Deolthal, Deoldhar, in Almora district. A mineral similar to soapstone in some of its properties, pyrophyllite, is found at Garahri in Hamirapur district and near Bijri and Dhaukua in Jhansi district. Steatite has also been reported from the districts of Chamoli and Pithoragarh.

West Bengal:

Small occurrences of talc are located on the hill slopes of the Darjeeling Himalayas near the Sikkim border, at a distance of about 1.5 km north of Gokaer and about 16 km north-west of Darjeeling town. The material varies in quality and grades from impure greenish variety to white massive talc. Some of these pockets have been quarried since 1952.

Numerous occurrences of talcose-chlorite-schists and talc schists have been noticed in Bankura and Jalpaiguri districts. These rocks are suitable for use as potstone and are locally used for carving out pots and utensils of various designs.

Kyanite:

India has one of the world’s richest deposits of Kyanite. Kyanite occurs in metamorphic aluminous rocks and its primarily used in metallurgical, ceramic, refractory, electrical glass, cement and a number of other industries due to its ability to stand high temperature.

It is also used in making sparking plugs in automobiles. Kyanite is a silicate of aluminium, Al2, 03, Si0, and have the same chemical composition as andalusite, sillimanite and kyanite. Owning to their possessing certain valuable properties of refractories to stand high temperatures in metallurgical industries especially in the manufacture of glass and ceramics.

Production and Distribution:

The total in situ reserves of Kyanite are 8.1 million tonnes. Besides conditional resources of 95.3 million tonnes of Kyanite are also estimated. Kyanite deposits are located in Maharashtra, Karnataka, Jharkhand, Rajasthan and Andhra Pradesh.

Andhra Pradesh:

Reserves of Kyanite have been reported from Khammam and Nellore districts. Cyrstals of Kyanite have been found in the garnet mines of Garibpeta, west of Kerissa, Kunda and north­west of Saidpuram and Chundi area in Khammam districts of Andhra Pradesh.

Jharkhand:

Kyanite occurs mainly in Singhbhum as kyanite quartz rock and as massive kyanite- rock in beds of considerable size in the Archean schists; Kyanite occurs along the northern flank of the copper belt for a distance of about 130 km in Singhbhum district The deposits of Kyanite at Lapsa Buru near Raj Kharswan has been the largest in the world and also the best in quality but now it is nearly exhausted.

Himachal Pradesh:

Kyanite is abundant in the schists and granites exposed near Kanaur and Bhabeh and in many parts of Bashaher where its beautiful colour has often led to its being mistaken for sapphire; but Kyanite which occurs in blades is less hard than other refractories and breaks easily into small rectangular blades.

Maharashtra:

The districts of Bhandara and Nagpur possess kyanite, of all grades. It occupies the second position among the major states of India.

Karnataka:

Kyanite occurrences have been found in a number of localities in Karnataka. A bladed variety occurs in Thirumalpur locality of Hassan district, massive faint blue Kyanite is found in Mavinkere area of the same district. Small occurrences are reported from east of Hole Narsipur in Hassan district; Malleswara Betta, Kallahalli, Mundanhalli and Itna in Mysore district; Sringeri area in Chikmagalur district and Halalkare taluka of Chitradurga district.

Orissa:

In Orissa, minor deposits occur near Torodanali in Dhenkanal district; at Panijia between Kuldih and Gundipani and Karpal in Mayurbhanj district; and south of Sialjor, near Kodumunda in Sundargarh district.

Rajasthan:

Kyanite occurs near Kishangarh and Sansera in Udaipur district; Pansal in Bhilwara district and near Dewal and Warlia in Dungarpur district.

West Bengal:

Bluish blades of Kyanite occur in certain rocks of Darjeeling and Bankura districts. The principal producers of Kyanite in India are the Bihar State Mineral Development Corporation Ltd. (BSMDCL) and the Hindustan Copper Ltd. (HCL). Recently Karnataka has emerged as the largest producer with 46% of the production.

Silimanite:

Sillimanite occurs in the metamorphic aluminous rocks and India has rich reserves of Sillimanite. The occurrence and uses of silimanite are same as Kyanite. About 83% of India’s sillimanite reserves are located in the states of Tamil Nadu and Orissa.

The mineral occurs at 1,000 m- height in 21 scattered deposits in the vicinity of Sonapahar, Nongpur and Nongbain villages in the Nongation area of Meghalaya and are worked by the Bharat Refractors Ltd. Most of the deposits contain sillimanite admixed with corrundum, several deposits contain only sillimanite and a few only corrundum. The mineral occurs in the form of massive boulders in highly aluminous rocks.

Production and Distribution:

The total in situ reserves of sillimanite in the country are 58.8 million tonnes. The conditional resources are estimated to be 5.9 million tonnes. Sillimaniite resources are in Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Kerala, Andhra Pradesh, and West Bengal with minor occurrences in Assam, Jharkhand, Karnataka, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Meghalaya and Rajasthan.

Tamil Nadu:

Sillimanite deposits have been recorded from the districts of Kanyakumari, Tirunevelli, Tiruchirapalli, Coimbatore and some other places in the state.

Meghalaya:

More than four-fifths of India’s sillimanite reserves occur in the Khasi plateau off in Meghalaya. The Meghalaya minerals possess 94.85% sillimanite, 3.24% corrundum, 0.80% hematite and 0.45% ilmenite.

The deposits of sillimanite in Sonapahar occur as outcrops of natural rocks and boulders sometimes of big size. The Khasi hills sillimanite has an average content of 61 per cent of alumina, 36% of silica and thus, very nearly reproduces the proportions considered ideal in the case of mullite and therefore is valuable for refractory material.

The mineral occurs at 1,000 m height in 21 scattered deposits in the vicinity of Sonapahar, Nongpur and Nongbain villages by the Bharat Refractories Ltd.

Maharashtra:

Bhandara (Pohara Bodki Mine) districts of Maharashtra contribute 27% of the total output.

Kerala:

The beach sands of Kerala contain 5 to 6% sillimanite. Presently it is being recovered as by product accounting for 65% of the total output.

Madhya Pradesh:

Deposits of all grades of sillimanite are found in Pipra in Sidhi district. The deposit is about 800 m long and 64 m wide. Less important deposits occur east of Samasthi, north of Chittaguppa and near Kareapal in Bastar district.

Others:

Small occurrences have been reported from Gaya and Hazaribagh districts of Bihar, Karbi, and Anglong in Assam. The IRE’s Orissa Sand complex in the coastal region of Chatrapur in Ganjam district, Orissa has a capacity of 30,000 type of granular sillimanite.

Graphite:

Graphite is a mineral which is exclusively formed of finely crystalline form of carbon. It is used for ‘lead’ in pencils in the making of crucibles for metal smelting, as carbon brushes in electric motors, and as a ‘moderator’ in atomic reactors. The greater part of the output is poor in quality and is generally used as paint pigment or for coating the insides of moulds for smooth finish.

Production and Distribution:

The in situ reserves of graphite are 16 million tonnes. Orissa is the major producer of graphite. Almost the entire reserves of Tamil Nadu under proved category are in Ramanathapuram district. Deposits of commercial importance are located in Andhra Pradesh, Jharkhand, Gujarat, Karnataka, Kerala, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Orissa, Rajasthan and Tamil Nadu.

Tamil Nadu:

Graphite reserves are located in Tirunelveli and Madurai districts and near Poonvandi, Arsanur and Kirnur in Ramanathapuram. Some deposits are also found in Arumanallur, Todagamalai and Kandasawamipuram in Kanya Kumari districts.

Orissa:

Graphite deposits of 55-60% carbon occur at Babupali, Dengsurgi, Biliangora, Bughmunda, Komna and other parts of Kalahandi districts; Titilagarh, Darpagarh, Munbahal, Belgaon, Patnagarh and other areas of Bolangir district; near Sargipalli, Padampur and Rampur in Sambalpur district; Majikalam Arugali, Karrigudda and other parts of Koraput and in Phulpani district.

Andhra Pradesh:

Graphite deposits around Peddanakonda have a fixed carbon content of 40 to 65 per cent. Important areas include east Godavari and west Godavari districts (areas like Rampa Chodavaram, Reddi Bodiar and Haripuram) Krishna district, Khamamet district, Visakhapatnam, Guntur and Bunderu.

Apatites and Rock Phosphates:

Native phosphates, as Apatites [Ca/5 F(Po4)5] or rock phosphates, as concentrations are highly valued now as artificial fertilizers or manures, either in the raw condition or after treatment with sulphuric acid to convert them into acid or super phosphates. The mineral apatite and phosphate rock modules are grouped in this category. Phosphorus is an essential ingredient in building up the fertility of soil.

The principal uses of these minerals are for the manufacture of phosphatic fertilizers containing phosphates in a soluble form or for the manufactures of elemental phosphorus and phosphoric acid.

Small quantities are used in the manufacturer of high phosphorous pig iron for spun pipes and other casting purposes, manufactures of matches, chemicals and plastics. Apatite is the by-product of phosphate from the slag of the basic Bessemer and basic hearth steel furnaces. India is poor in phosphatic minerals.

Production and Distribution:

Apatite deposits of commercial importance known so far are confined to Puruliya district of West Bengal, Singhbhum district of Bihar and Visakhapatnam district of Andhra Pradesh. The production of Phosphorite rock phosphate at 215 thousand tonnes increased by 34.05% in the year 2010-11. Rajasthan alone accounted for 94% of the total production in India. Madhya Pradesh contributed the reaming 6% of the production.

Rajasthan:

Apatite deposits have also been reported from Ajmer, Dungrapur and Jaisalmer districts, the P2O5 content of these deposits is 15-30 per cent. About 37 lakh tonnes of phosphorite has been provided in the Jhamar Kotra area near Udaipur.

West Bengal:

The state produces more than three-fourths of the total production of apetite. Almost the entire output comes from the Beldih open-cast mines of the West Bengal mineral development and Trading Corporation in Puruliya district. The ore produced has a content of 20% P2O5.

Andhra Pradesh:

The district of Visakhapatnam has Apatite reserves especially near Sitarampuram area of Visakhapatnam district. The phosphate content is less than 35 per cent. It is found in the zone of magnetite vermiculite running in parallel veins in diopside gneiss and granulites.

Jharkhand:

Massive apatite occurs as an abundant constituent of the mica-pegmatites of Hazaribagh and of the mica-periodatite dykes. Fairly large deposits of apatite also occur over a belt of 64 kms in the northern part of Singhbhum district.

Phosphatic deposit is also found in lenticular aggregates in the Dharwar rocks of Dalbhum in Singhbhum. Rock phosphates occur in veins and lenses in patches running for 60 kms from Itagarh, west of Jamshedpur to Khejurdhari south of Mosabani, in Singhbhum district. The P2O5 content of these deposits is 11-20 per cent.

Tamil Nadu:

Phosphatic deposits occur in connection with the Cretaceous beds of Tiruchirapalli, where phosphate of lime occurs in the form of septarian nodules disseminated in the clay beds. Apatite also occurs in some schistose rocks in Dharmapuri and North Arcot districts.

Madhya Pradesh:

The Khatamba open cast mine in Jhabua district and Hirapur in Chhatarpur and Sagar districts produce about 4-5% of India’s total output of phosphorite.

Uttarakhand:

Fairly extensive deposits overlying the Krol limestone near Mussoorie, rich in tricalcium phosphates, have been lately discovered. They occur in the form of nodules and layers.

The nodules contain 76 per cent calcium phosphate while the phosphatic rocks contain about 65 per cent. This rock occurs in Dehradun, Tehri Garhwal and Lalitpur areas. The grades of P2O5 vary widely. Superphosphate manure in India is manufactured from imported rock-phosphate and bone-meal.

Magnesite (MgCo3):

Magnesite is one of the important minerals used in the manufacture of basic refractories, which in turn, find an application in the iron and steel industry. Magnesium does not occur in nature in the Free State. It commonly occurs in combination as a carbonate, known as magnesite, which is a hard, white massive mineral occurring as earthy lumps, generally as a network of veins in highly weathered ultrabasic rocks.

Magnesite is believed to be an alteration product of dunites (periodite) and other basic magnesian rocks. Magnesite occur in nature usually as a secondary deposit formed due to alteration of ultra basic rocks mostly serpentines and also as replacement deposits in carbonate rocks and as bedded deposits and vein fillings.

Uses:

The most familiar use of magnesium for the common man is the magnesium wire giving a brilliant glow of incandescent light. Large deposits of magnesite (MgCO3) occur in the district of Salem as veins associated with other magnesian rocks such as dolomite, serpentine etc.

It is also used in for manufacturing Sorel cement (magn esium oxychloride) and magnesium salts. Raw magnesite is dead burnt for making refractory bricks and caustic and calcined for non-refractory uses.

Production and Distribution:

The total in situ reserves of magnesite are about 415 million tonnes of which 76 million tonnes are in the proved category. Major deposits of magnesite are found in Uttarakhand, Tamil Nadu and Rajasthan while minor occurrences are in Jammu and Kashmir, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh and Kerala.

Tamil Nadu:

One of the largest deposits of magnesite in the world and the largest in India known so far occurs near Salem town at the Chalk Hills known locally in Tamil as ‘Sunnambu Karadu’. This magnesite is of a high degree of chemical purity (MgO 46.4 per cent) is easily obtained and when calcined at a high temperature, yields a material of great refractoriness.

The deposits, occurring in irregular veins in intrusive ultrabasic rocks, spread over an area of 18.13 kms. The veins are of dyke, lens and reticulate types. The other areas where magnesite occurs are the districts of Dharampuri, Nilgiri, North Arcot, Periyar and Tirunelveli Small deposits of similar magnesite occur in Chettipati, Siranganur, Sirapalls, in Salem district and near Pavitram in Tiruchirapalli district.

Karnataka:

Magnesite veins are found in serpentine rocks derived from ultrabasic rocks in Dod Kanya and Dod Katur in the districts of Hassan and Mysore which are transversed by the same veins as from Tamil Nadu stretching upto Coorg on the West Coast. Other reserves are found in Sinduvalli, Solepur, Navinahalli Burnpur and Kuppa and in Kollegal taluka.

In Hassan district, inferior deposits occur near Holenarsipur, Sunnahat, Hasur, Dodkadnur, Kabbur, Idegondane halli and Hasadpur. Veins of magnesite form a patch of dunite on the eastern slopes of Ennahole, Rangappanbetta and other places in Holenarsipur.

Himachal Pradesh and Jammu and Kashmir:

Recoverable reserves of all grades of magnesite have been estimated from the Chamba district of Himachal Pradesh and from Udhampur district of Jammu and Kashmir. Mahasu and Sirmur in Himachal Pradesh also have reserves of Magnesite.

Orissa:

Reserves are found in Balasore. Cuttack, Mayurbhanj and Sundargarh in Orissa.

Rajasthan:

Magnesite occur in the districts of Ajmer, Pali; Udaipur, Dungarpur and Nagaur districts of Rajasthan.

Uttarakhand:

Over a quarter reserves of magnesite occur in Almora district of Uttarakhand. Here good quality magnesite occurs in narrow bands of variable thickness in massive dolomite between Someshwar and Bageshwar near Agar, Chahana, Dewaldhar and Nail.

Occurences of magnesite have also been reported from Jhiroli, Pagankhol, Ariapani, Bhurgaon, Chandgdog, Boragar, Gahar Rithait, Satislang, Dhadiari Jakhera Tachhiri, Tanga Duari, in Chamoli district. These have been found to have a purity of 45- 45 percent, over a 2 km belt.

Gujarat:

Small reserves are found in the Sabar Kantha, Junagarh and Banaskantha districts of Guajrat.

Others:

Talc magnesite rocks carrying stringers of magnesite occur on Pathar Pahar hill near Bitardari, 11 kms from Jamshedpur in Jharkhand, Kurnool district of Andhra Pradesh.

Asbestos:

Two quite different minerals are included under this name; one, a variety of amphibole, resembling tremolite and the other, more important, a fibrous variety of serpentine (chrysotile). Both possess physical properties that make them valuable as commercial products. Asbestos (amphibole) occurs in pockets or small masses or veins in altered basic igneous rocks and in gneissic and schistose rocks.

The chrysotile variety, which supplies 80 per cent of the asbestos of commerce, forms veins in serpentine, and occurs in altered serpentinised basic and ultrabasic igneous rocks. Asbestos has found a wonderful variety of uses in the industrial world of today.

It is a naturally occurring silky fibrous material; but unlike other fibres, it is uninflammable and, therefore, invaluable in the manufacture of fire-proof, cloth, rope, paper, millboard, sheeting, belt, paint, and in the making of fire-proof safes, insulators, lubricants, felts, etc.

It is also used in making aprons, gloves, curtains, brake-linings in automobile and like industries and insulating mats. Mixed with magnesia, it is used for making ‘magnesia bricks’ used for heat insulation. Asbestos cement sheets are used for roofing. When asbestos is brittle, it is made into filter pads for filtering acids, organic liquids and other chemicals.

Production and Distribution:

Andhra Pradesh:

Known in Telugu as Ratinara, asbestos of best quality is found in Pulivendla taluk of Cuddapah district. Here excellent chrysotile asbestos occurs at the contact of a bed of Cuddapah limestones with a dolerite sill. There are several occurrences between Chitravati and Papaghani rivers. The 15 kms long zone between Lopatanuthula and Brahmanapalle is the most promising.

Nagaland:

Silky chrysotile, a commercial variety of asbestos has been recorded from the rocks in the Naga Hills, especially between Puchimi and Kurami in Tezu valley near Manyung River, between Namyung and Taap (or Tepe) river, and near Gedu River.

Bihar:

Asbestos occurs in over a hundred localities in Singhbhum district; of these the deposits in Seraikela chromite bearing area and Dhalbhumgarh areas and those in the Dalama ranges are important.

The possible reserves of asbestos in 32 localities so far estimated are of the order of 355,000 tonnes, down to depths varying from 6 to 30 m. Much of the Seraikela region of Singhbhum, which is of the actinolite variety, however, does not possess that softness or flexibility of fibre on which its industrial application depends.

Gujarat:

The few occurrences that are found in the State are in the Narayanpur valley in Sabarkantha district.

Madhya Pradesh:

Asbestos occurs in thin veins in the limestone near Bachai in Narsinghpur district; there is a possibility of finding workable veins in the neighbourhood. Asbestos also occurs in Jhabua district.

Karnataka:

The main deposits occur in Hassan district. Asbestos in this area is of the brittle, amphibole type. Chrysotile variety of asbestos is known to occur in Mysore district.

Tamil Nadu:

Small occurrences of fibrous asbestos are reported in the magnesite area near Salem. These are capable of development for manufacture of asbestos cement if sorting and grading of fibre is carried out accurately the brittle variety of asbestos occurs in the magnesite area of Valiyapatti south of Namakkal in Salem district. Occurrences are also known in Nilgiri and Coimbatore district.

Rajasthan:

Important occurrences are known near Khewara and Rihabdeo in Udaipur district, Jakol and Khymaru in Dungarpur district and Alwar and Kishangarh districts.

Uttar Pradesh:

Occurrences are reported in Mirzapur district and at Jalai and Kanddhara in Garhwal district.

Barytes:

Barytes occurs in the form of veins and as beds in shales. The rather uncommon heavy mineral barytes is the sulphate of harium.

Uses:

Its uses are as a pigment for mixing with white lead, as a flux in the smelting of iron and manganese, in paper manufacture, in pottery glazes, etc. The whiter and better quality barytes is used in the local manufacture of paints (lithophone); the coloured variety is used in making heavy drilling mud by the oil companies. It is also used in the manufacture of textiles, rubber linoleum, gramophone records and printing ink.

Barytes is calcined with carbon and the product is used in the manufacture of barium salts which have numerous uses known as ‘calcine’ in industry and medicine. For instance, barium chloride, an important salt of barium, is used in water softening and in leather industry. Barium metal is utilized in electronic vacuum equipment.

Production and Distribution:

The in situ reserves of barytes are 85 million tonnes. The Mangampet deposit occurring in Cuddapah district (Andhra Pradesh) is the single largest deposit in the world. Minor occurrences of barytes are located in Rajasthan, West Bengal, Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Jharkhand, Himachal Pradesh and Karnataka.

Andhra Pradesh:

There are two varieties, viz. (i) snow-white, and (ii) buff-coloured (stained). The latter can be improved by appropriate treatment. It is found in Cuddapah, Anantapur, Kurnool, Krishna, Nellore, Prakasam and Khammamett districts. It has been estimated that Cuddapah district alone may contain 65.714 million tonnes of barytes of all grades down to a depth of 30 m.

Bihar:

Barytes occurs at Kolpotke in Singhbhum district and in a few isolated localities in Ranchi district. The occurrences near Kolpotke appear to be promising for commercial exploitation. Reserve of barytes has also been calculated from Palamau district.

Himachal Pradesh:

The deposits occur in the form of veins and pockets in limestone south-east of Kanti and other localities in Sirmur district. Here the mineral is white, fine-grained and, for the greater part, appears to be very pure.

The estimated reserves are of the order of 13,900 tonnes. This deposit however, is remote from the nearest railway station, Jagadhri (Yamuna Nagar). Barytes is also reported near Rajpur, Khajjar and Tatyana.

Karnataka:

Barytes has been reported from Chittradurg district of Karnataka where the reserve has been estimated at 9,105 tonnes.

Madhya Pradesh:

Barytes occurs as veins in copper lode at Sleemanabad in Jabalpur district and near Gain and Rehti in dewas district. Barytes has also been reported from Sidhi, Dhar, Shivpuri and Tikamgarh districts.

Maharashtra:

About 38,045 tonnes of reserves of barytes has been reported from Chandrapur district in the state.

Tamil Nadu:

Numerous veins of barytes occur in North Arcot district. The mineral also occurs associated with celestite in a small area in Tiruchirapalli district. The amount is, however, too small to be commercially important. The mineral is also reported at Kunichchi in Coimbatore, and in Ramanathpuram district.

Rajasthan:

Barytes occurs at several localities in Alwar district, Hathori in Bharatpur, Bhilwara, Bundi, Pali, Sikar and Udaipur districts.

Uttarakhand:

A reserve of 20,000 tonnes has been estimated from Dehradun district of Uttarakhand. On the whole, barytes occurs in sufficient quantities, but, with a few exceptions, the deposits were not worked till lately because of the absence of any demand for the mineral. The yearly output of recent years has risen to 211,726 tonnes valued at Rs 42 millions.

Andhra Pradesh:

Continued to be the principal producer accounting for 98 per cent production in 1986. The all-India recoverable reserves of barytes are placed at 71 million tonnes. The reserves are located mostly in Mangampet taluk, Cuddapah district, Andhra Pradesh.

The increasing consumption is attributed mainly to the increased oil well drilling industry, the main consumer of barytes in India. Chemical industry is the next important barytes consuming industry using it for manufacturing barium chemicals such as barium carbonate, chloride etc. Other barytes consuming industry like paint, asbestos products, glass, and rubber, abrasive and ceramic accounted for about 5 per cent consumption in 1986.

Borax:

Borax occurs as a precipitate from the hot springs of the Puga valley, Ladakh, in association with some sulphur deposits.’ It is of use in the manufacture of superior grades of glass, artificial gems, soaps, varnishes and in soldering and enamelling.

Like the nitre, alum and similar trades, the borax trade, which was formerly a large and remunerative one, has seriously declined, owing to the discovery of large deposits of calcium borate in the USA from which the compound is now synthetically prepared. The large resources of Puga were being projected to be refined locally for transport by air to industrial centres in India. Imports are made from Turkey, U.S.A and other countries.

Corundum:

Corundum is an original constituent of a number of igneous rocks of acid or basic composition, whether plutonic or volcanic. It generally occurs in masses, crystals, or irregular grains in pegmatites, granites, etc.

The presence of corundum under such conditions is regarded as due to an excess of the base A1203 in the original magma, over and above its proper portion to form the original varieties of aluminous silicates. In these instances, corundum occurs as an original constituent of the magma, but the mineral also occurs, in many cases as a secondary product in the zones of contact-metamorphism around plutonic intrusions.

Mostly corundum occurs in situ in the coarse-grained gneisses, in small round grains or in large crystals measuring several centimetres in size. Corundum, is next to diamond in hardness; it is widely used in the manufacture of abrasive, a common example of which is the corundum powder-coated wheel of the knife-sharpener. Finely ground corundum blended with clay has been used for making refractory crucibles capable of standing high temperature.

As an abrasive, corundum now has many rivals in such artificial products as carborundum, alundum, etc. Carborundum is used in the form of hones, wheels, powder, etc. by the lapidaries for cutting and polishing gems, glass, etc. Emery is an impure variety of corundum, mixed with iron ores and adulterated with spinel, garnet, etc. The abrading power of emery is much less than that of corundum, while that of corundum in general is far below that of its crystalized variety sapphire.

Production and Distribution:

Andhra Pradesh:

The area around Punighi in Hindupur taluk is reported to have yielded earlier large quantities of corundum for export. It is also available in Anantapur, in Kalyandrug and in Dharmavaram taluks. It also occurs near around Shankara mica mine, near Griddalur in Nellore district. The area supplies the requirements of the leading abrasive factory at Chennai. It is associated with syenite and ultra basic rocks.

Meghalaya:

Corundum occurs in association with sillimanite in Sonapahar in Khasi hills, an area not yet fully investigated. Corundum is believed to occur also below the alluvial tracts in Sonapahar area. Deposits containing several tonnes may also be traced in Raindu river valley near the border between Garo and Khasi hills.

Bihar:

Corundum deposits are found in Singhbhum district.

Madhya Pradesh:

Corundum is reported at a place about 1.6 kms from Paniari and in Morena district. Corundum of fairly good quality occurs in the corundum-sillimanite rocks about 800 m south-east of Pipra in Sidhi district, where pebbles of corundum are also recovered from the river bed. Small occurrences of corundum have been noted in Bastar district. Mainly it occurs in pegmatites-.

Tamil Nadu:

There is a large area of corundiferous rocks covering some parts of Tiruchirapalli, Salem and Coimbatore. In Dharmapuri taluk of Salem district, Corundum is found in a track 64 kms long and 1.58 kms wide. Corundum has also been mined for over two centuries in Sittampundi area in Namakkal along a 16 kms belt with an average width of over 1.5 kms. Mostly the corundum occurs in situ in the coarse-grained gneisses, in small round grains or in large crystals measuring several centimetres in size.

Karnataka:

India’s large resources of corundum are mostly concentrated in Karnataka State. It occurs mainly in pegmatites. Various grades of corundum, varying in colour as well, are found widely distributed here. In the Sringeri Jagir, small quantity of good ruby-corundum occurs. Large crystals of brown corundum have been found in places further south in the Ghat section. A number of deposits are found in Hassan district.

Salt:

Common salt or Sodium Chloride contains 39.22% sodium and 60.88% chlorine. It is either mined from sea water or produced by solar evaporation from the brine in the lakes of inland drainage.

Uses:

Salt is an essential-ingredient of food and an important raw material for chemical industry. In India nearly 52% of the total consumption of salt in the country is accounted for by edible uses; heavy chemicals namely caustic soda, chlorine and soda ash are produced from common salt. Sodium Sulphate which is used in paper, glass and textile industry is prepared commercially from the common salt.

The other important users include paper, textile, jute, oil refining, fish curing, ice manufacturing dyestuff, water softening, tanning, and steel and explosives industries upto 12% of the total production.

Sources of Salt:

There are three sources of production of this useful material in India: (1) Sea water along the coast of the Peninsula; (2) brinesprings, wells and salt-lakes of the arid tracts, as of Rajasthan and Uttar Pradesh; (3) rock-salt deposit contained in Kachchh and in Mandi region (H.P.). Salt is one of the most common substances of use in daily life and is indispensable for several modem industries.

Assam, Nagaland and Manipur:

Although salt- lakes are common in the Barail rocks, no substantial deposits have yet been recorded in them. The climate of north eastern region is too moist to allow the formation of any superficial saline efflorescence.

At present salt is derived (and locally used) from the brine wells (known as ‘Pung’) fairly common in the Naga Hills. Brine springs also occur in Cachar district in various places and salt was formerly prepared in the Sadia and Jorhat areas in early days. The salt lakes and other local sources of salt of Assam require furter Investigation.

Gujarat:

Most of the salt in Gujarat is produced by direct solar evaporation of sea water. An appreciable quantity of salt is also derived from subterranean brine in the Little Rann of Kachchh. The important salt producing centres are: Rajkot district; Jamnagar district: near Porbandar and Mongrol; Surat district; Bhavnagar Zalawad districts. Mithapur, Dharsana, Chharvada, Okha and Valsad.

Some millions of tonnes of pure rock-salt, produced by evaporation of sea water in enclosed basins, occur bedded in the sands of the Rann of Kachchh Kharaghoda and Dhrangadhra in little Rann of Kachchh produce large quantities from subterranean brine.

Tamil Nadu:

On the east coast Tamil Nadu is the largest producer of salt contributing nearly 18% to the national output annually. Chennai and Tuticorin have emerged as the largest centres of salt production from sea water next only to Gujarat.

Himachal Pradesh:

The rock-salt deposits of Mandi are in a zone of limestone, shales and sandstones. Salt beds of considerable size occur here. Crystalline salt is occasionally met with. The average annual production from Mandi mines is fluctuating; in some years it had reached 4,470 tonnes. Mining of crystalline salt is done only in the Mandi mines of H.P.

Maharashtra:

Salt is manufactured at Shiroda in Ratnagiri district, in Kolaba district, in Thane district and Bombay. Average yearly production figure has been 492,000 tonnes. Bhandup, Uran and Bhayandar near Mumbai are large centres of production in Maharashtra.

Punjab and Surrounding Areas:

The groundwater is saline in parts of Sultnpur Mahal in the Gurgaon district and in Rohtak district. Salt extraction from this water has been under consideration.

Rajasthan:

Considerable quantities of common salt are prepared from brine. The important areas of production are the salt-lakes of Sambhar in Jaipur division, and Lonkarasar in the Bikaner division. The salinity of the lakes in this area of internal drainage has for long, been a matter of conjecture as to whether it is of local origin, or is due to constant dropping of wind-borne salt as dust from the seacoast or from the Rann of Kachchh.

Of the salt-lakes of Rajasthan, the Sambhar Lake is the most noteworthy. It has an area of 233 sq.kms when full during the monsoon, when the depth of the water is about 1.2 m. For the rest of the year it is dry, the surface being encrusted by a white, saliferous silt. (The cause of the salinity of the lake was ascribed to various circumstances, to former connection with the Gulf of Cambay, to brine springs, to chemical dissolution from the surrounding country, etc. But a series of experiments by Geological Survey authorities showed that the salt of the lake of Rajasthan is largely wind-borne.

About 132,000 tonnes of saline matter is calculated to be borne by the winds annually to these lake areas during the hot weather months. From a recent examination of the data regarding direction and strength of surface and upper winds in this region, however, it appears unlikely that a great proportion of salt could have been wind-borne from the Kachchh littoral.) The coastal areas of Goa, Karnataka and Kerala produce some salt from seabrine, though per ha production is relatively low because of higher rainfall and humidity conditions.

Other Minerals:

Other minerals occurring in significant quantities in India are bentonite (Rajasthan, Gujarat, Jharkhand and Jammu and Kashmir), corundum Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Chhattisgarh), calcite (Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan, Madhya Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Haryana, Karnataka, Uttar Pradesh and Gujarat), fuller’s earth (Rajasthan, Jharkhand, Bihar, Andhra Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Maharashtra, West Bengal and Karnataka), garnet (Tamil Nadu, Orissa, Andhra Pradesh, Rajasthan and Kerala), pyrites (Jharkhand, Rajasthan, Karnataka, Himachal Pradesh and Andhra Pradesh), steatite (Rajasthan, Uttar Pradesh, Kerala, Maharashtra and Madhya Pradesh), wallastonite (Rajasthan and Gujarat), zircon (beach sand of Kerala, Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh and Orissa) and quartz and silica minerals are widespread and occur in nearly all states. Besides, the country has vast marble, slate and sandstone.

Granite is mainly mined in Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Rajasthan; marble in Rajasthan, Gujarat and Uttar Pradesh; slate in Chhattisgarh, Madhya Pradesh, Haryana and Andhra Pradesh and sandstone in Rajasthan.

Essay on Lignite Coal Found in India

The amount of fixed carbon in lignite varies from 35 to 40% Lignite is used for thermal power generation as industrial and domestic fuel, and besides it can also be used for carbonisation and fertilizer production.

The importance of lignite fuel is greater on account of the fact that most of the deposits are located in areas at considerable distance from the coal deposits of the north-eastern parts of the peninsula. The use of lignite in these areas can save the expenditure on long distance freight on coal transport.

Production and Distribution:

The reserves of lignite have been estimated as a litle over 3, 9897.58 million tonnes as on 2010 out of which the major contributor is the lignite basin of Tamil Nadu. 4,150 million tonnes in Neyveli area of Cuddalore district in Tamil Nadu of which about 2,360 million tonnes have been proved.

Geological reserves of about 1,206 million tonnes of lignite have been identified in Jayam Kondacholapuram of Trichy district in Tamil Nadu. Lignite reserves have been identified in Rajasthan, Gujarat, Jammu and Kashmir and Kerala to the extent of 32,392 million tonnes, 4, 80,402 million tonnes, 2662.75 million tonnes and 27.5 million tonnes respectively. Lignite reserves at Neyveli are exploited by Neyveli Lignite Corporation Limited (CNLC).

Gujarat:

Lignite occurs at Umarsar, Lefsi, Jhulrai and Baranda except Umarsar, the lignite of other places are of poor quality.

Jammu and Kashmir:

The lignite deposits belonging to Pliocene and even a Newer Age have been found in considerable quantity. Two horizons have been recognized in the Shaliganga River, Ferozepur Nala sector. Lignite is also found in the Nichahom area near Handwara in Baramula district, Chokibal area in the Kanahom Nar at Honginkut.

Kerala:

Irregular seams of lignite occur near Pathiarpally in Alappuzha district. Warkala in Thiruvanthapuram district and Paravur in Quilon district have irregular beds of lignite while Cannanore and Kasargod taluk have occurrences of lignite.

Tamil Nadu:

Lignite usable as fuel occurs with soft water-logged sandstones and shales. Lignite fields have been discovered in Neyveli in S. Arcot which extend over an area of 480 sq. km. These are the largest deposits of lignite in south-east Asia and can sustain power generation for more than hundred years.

Rajasthan:

Extensive deposits of lignite occur at Palana in Bikaner district. The thickness of the lignite bed varies from 6.1 to 11.9 m and increases north westward. Lignite is reported to occur in many other districts of Rajasthan.

West Bengal:

Occurrences of lignite of good quality and quantity are reported on the western side of Jainti river and in the Buza Hill, north-north west of Jainti while the deposits in Darjeeling and Jalpaiguri districts are in small pockets. Beds of lignite occur in the Ganga delta.

Pondicherry:

Lignite deposits have been recorded from near Bahur, Araganur and Kanniyankovil, Padukadal, Vadapuran, Kadvanur and Paliayam.

Essay on Power Sector in India

This produces either steam power or electric power which can then be used to drive machinery. Power development in India commenced at the end of the 19th century with the commissioning of electricity supply in Darjeeling during 1897, followed by commissioning of a hydro-power station at Sivasamudram in Karnataka during 1902.

In the pre-independence era, the power supply was mainly in the private sector that too restricted in urban areas. Development of electricity was very low and confined to a few areas in the country before independence.

The Tata Hydro­electric Grid in Maharashtra, the Methur Scheme in Tamil Nadu, the Siva Samundram Scheme in Karnataka, the Upper Ganga Canal Power Stations in Uttar Pradesh and the Mandi Scheme in Himachal Pradesh were the only few worth mentioning hydro-electric schemes in the country before 1947. The thermal power stations were of small size and constructed only near large cities.

The Electricity (supply) Act was enacted in 1948. With the formation of State Electricity Boards in various parts of five year plans, a significant step was taken in bringing about systematic growth of power supply industry.

After Independence, India has made huge investments in the energy sector since 1950-51. A number of multi purpose projects came into being and with the setting up of thermal, hydro and nuclear power stations, power generation started increasing significantly.

There are five major sources of power, viz., water, coal, oil, gas and radioactive elements like uranium, thorium and plutonium. Electricity generated from the water is known as hydro-electricity. Coal, oil and gas are sources of thermal power. Atomic energy is generated from uranium, thorium, and plutonium. Recently new sources of power have been developed e.g. solar energy, geothermal energy.

Electricity is generated by using different fuels, such as burning coal or petroleum, or disintegrating nuclear minerals, or the force of falling water. There are several advantages to using electricity over coal or petroleum. Electricity in MW represents capacity, electricity generation represents supply of power over a period of time and is measured in terms of units.

The installed capacity of power plants in the country as on 13.4.2012 is 200287 MW including 22.253 MW from Renewable energy sources. The gross generation in the country during 2011-12 (UP to February 2012) including import from Bhutan was 811 billion units.

Capacity Addition:

There has been a record capacity addition of 53922 MW till date during the 11th five year plan out of which 19459 MW has been added in. 2011-12 financial year. The highest ever capacity addition in a single year.

The capacity addition in the 11th plan is close to the total cumulative achievement of 56617 MW in last years from 3 plans that is 8th to 10th plan. 75785 MW is planned for addition in 12th plan. For addition there are 5 projects 1885 MW which are already synchronized and expected to be commissioned shortly. These projects are Bhusawal unit-5, parichha Kassaipaalli, Balco.

The eastern region of the country has a comparative advantage in coal-fired plants and in hydel generation. This emphasises the need for a national power grid, which can transport this electricity form producing regions in the east to customers elsewhere in the country.

The present inter-regional connectors are capable of transferring 5,700 MW. This is slated for augmentation to 30.000 MW by year 2012. The Electricity Act, 2003 has been enacted and the provisions of this Act (except section 121) have been brought into force from 10 June 2003. With the coming into force of the Electricity Act, 2003, the Indian Electricity Act, 1910, Electricity (Supply) Act 1948 and Electricity Regulatory Commissions Act 1998 stand repeatled.