Differences between Khadar (New) and Bhangar (Old)

2. Found in the lower levels in the plains near the rivers.

3. Loamy, porous, soil.

4. More fertile than Bhangar as new layers are deposited year after year during monsoonal floods

Bhangar (old):

1. Older alluvium or old soil and form the largest part of the Northern Plains.

2. Found higher up in the plains at river terraces away from rivers.

3. Clayey and non-porous.

4. Less fertile than Khadar

Security for Keeping the Peace in Other Cases under Section 107 of the Code of Criminal Procedure

Thus, whereas S. 106 (considered earlier) applies when the conviction of a person for his past conduct leads to an apprehension for the future, S. 107 applies when the Magistrate is of the opinion that, unless prevented from so acting, a person is likely to act the detriment of public peace and public tranquillity. Thus, S. 107 is not intended for the punishment of past offences, but for the prevention of acts that may amount to, or lead to, a breach of the peace in the future.

The Madras High Court has rightly pointed out that information regarding past acts alone would not be enough to justify an order requiring a person to show cause why he should not be directed to furnish security for keeping the peace. Something more is necessary, namely, the likelihood of the commission, in the near future, of a breach of the peace or a wrongful act which is likely to lead to a breach of the peace. (Maruthapali Goondar, A.I.R. 1937 Mad. 356)

It has been held that the following are not wrongful acts under S. 107, namely:

(a) The singing of ballads in the open streets, although it may lead to an obstruction in the street by crowds collecting to hear the ballads;

(b) The opening of a cattle market by certain persons on their own land, not far from an existing cattle market;

(c) Mere use of idle threats;

(d) Drawing water from a public well by chamars in spite of opposition from others;

(e) Use of the word ‘Amen’ in a loud voice in prayer in a mosque.

Difference between S. 106 and S. 107:

S. 106 deals with an order for security for keeping the peace, which may be passed when a person has been convicted of an offence involving breach of the peace. Thus, the basis of S. 106 is the conviction. S. 107, on the other hand, deals with apprehension of a future imminent breach of the peace, whether there has been any previous conviction against the party proceeded against or not.

Secondly, the period of the bond under S. 106 is upto three years, whereas under S. 107, the corresponding period is one year.

Specimen Form:

The following is a specimen form of a bond to keep the peace:

Whereas I (name), inhabitant of (place), have been called upon to enter into a bond to keep the peace for the term of one year, I hereby, bind myself not to commit a breach of the peace, or do any act that may probably occasion a breach of the peace, during the said term and, in case of my making default therein, I hereby bind myself to forfeit to Government the sum of Rupees Ten Thousand. Dated this 1st day of April 20

(Signature)

Differences between West and East Coast

2. It is narrow and uneven.

3. It has estuaries and lagoons.

4. Known as the Konkan Coast in Maharashtra, Kanara Coast in Karnataka & Malabar Coast in Kerala.

East Coast of Peninsular India:

1. It lies along the Bay of Bengal.

2. It is wider and more level.

3. It has fertile deltas of rivers.

4. Known as the Northern Circars in the North and Coromandal Coast in the South.

Essay on the Agro-Based Industry in India

Textiles, sugar, vegetable oil and plantation industries derive their raw materials from agriculture. These are therefore called agro-based industries.

The Sugar Industry:

After the cotton textile industry, the sugar industry is the most important agro-based industry in India. It provides employment to about 0.5 million skilled and unskilled workers constituting about 7.5% of the rural population and about 45 million sugarcane farmers.

India ranks second in the world production of sugar despite the fact that it is the largest producer of sugarcane. There are two main reasons for this:

1. The sugarcane grown in India is of low quality with low sugar content.

2. More than half of the sugarcane is used to produce gur and khadsart.

India has emerged as the largest sugar producing country in the world with a 15 per cent share of the world’s sugar production. However, the share in international trade of sugar is only 0.5 per cent.

Development of the Sugar Industry:

India is the native of sugarcane and the art of preparing gur and khand owes to this country. The development of the industry on modern lines dates from 1903 when a sugar mill was started in Bihar. Subsequently, sugar mills were started in other parts of Bihar and Uttar Pradesh. In 1931, their number reached 31, of which 14 were in Uttar Pradesh, 12 in Bihar and only 5 in other states. After 1932 this industry made remarkable progress and the country became self-sufficient in sugar.

Production of sugar increased during the war. In 1950-51, 139 factories were in operation producing 11.34 lakh tonnes of sugar. Sugar production in India has been cyclic in nature due to good monsoon and increase in sugarcane area under cultivation sugar production from sugarcane during the seasons 2006-07 and 2007-08 increased substantially to 282 lakh tonns and 263 lakh tonns. However sugar production declined to about 147 lakh tons in 2008-09 sugar and then increased to about 188 lakh tannes 2009-10. There were 654 installed sugar features in the country son 2010.

India is the largest producer-of sugarcane in the world. Along with khandsari and gur, India also ranks first in the production of sugar. As sugar industry is based on sugarcane, which is heavy, weight losing and perishable, the mills are located close to the sugarcane producing areas.

Location of the Sugar Industry:

Sugarcane is a weight-losing crop; sugar produced from it ranges from 9 to 12 per cent of the weight of the cane. Cane is more difficult to transport than sugar. Further, its sucrose content begins to deteriorate after it has been cut from the field, and better recovery is dependent upon its being crushed within twenty-four hours of its harvesting. Besides, the price of sugarcane constitutes 52 per cent of the total cost of white sugar. Therefore, sugar factories are located within the cane producing regions of the country.

The cane producing belts are the great northern plains and peninsular India. The southern states enjoy more favourable climatic conditions for the cultivation of cane. Maharashtra, Uttar Pradesh, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka, Gujarat and Andhra Pradesh are major sugar producing states in the country. The first two together produce nearly two-thirds of the total sugar of the country.

The industry is concentrated in the states of Uttar Pradesh and Bihar which is considered the “sugar-belt” where more than 60% of the factories are located. There are many reasons for this.

1. The largest quantity of sugarcane is grown in the fertile northern plains with heavy rainfall.

2. Coal is the main source of power for the sugar factories which is easily available from the nearby coal mines in Bihar.

3. The Northern Plains being the most densely populated part of the country provides cheap labour.

4. Kanpur is a great distribution centre for northern India. This is because it is well connected to the different parts of the country by means of rail, road and river transport.

In recent years this industry has shown a tendency to migrate south since the sugarcane produced there has a higher sugar content. This is due to many reasons:

1. Geographical conditions are more suitable in the south. The soil is well drained and free from water-logging. Southern India is free from frost and has high temperatures ideal for sucrose development.

2. Fertilizers are more commonly used which results in higher sugar content since it is soil exhausting.

3. The cooperative movement has made greater headway in the south than in the north. The holdings are larger and well- planned. Scientific methods and modem machinery is used.

4. The factories are closer to the fields (within a 30 km radius) and so there is no loss of sugar content in transportation.

5. The “sugar lobby” in Maharashtra is responsible for huge capital investment and so there is a vested interest in getting the maximum returns.

Besides Uttar Pradesh and Bihar, the other sugar producing states are Maharashtra, Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Tamil Nadu, Punjab, Haryana and Rajasthan.

Sugar Industry in North India:

Uttar Pradesh is now second in the production of sugar. Its proportion in total production declined from 38.9 per cent in 1964-65 to 26.5 per cent in 2000-01. Sugar factories are concentrated in two belts-the Ganga-Yamuna doab and the Tarai region.

Major sugar producing centres in the Ganga-Yamuna doab are Saharanpur, Muzaffarnagar, Meerut, Ghaziabad, Baghpat, Muradabad and Bulandshahar districts; while Gorakhpur, Deoria, Basti, Gonda, Sitapur, Behraich, and Faizabad are important sugar producing districts in the Tarai region.

Sugar factories are located in Bihar, Punjab, Haryana and Madhya Pradesh and Gujarat. Bihar contributed about 12 per cent of total sugar production in 1964-65, which declined to 1.6 per cent in 2000-01. Saran, Champaran, Muzaffarpur, Siwan, Darbhanga and Gaya districts are important for sugarcane. However, relative significance of Punjab has declined, though Gurdaspur, Jalandhar, Sangarur, Patiala and Amritsar are major producers.

In Haryana, sugar factories are located in Karnal, Ambala, Rohtak, Hissar and Gurgaon districts. Sugar industry is comparatively new in Gujarat. Share of this state in total sugar production in the country increased from only 1.5 per cent in 1965-65 to 5.9 per cent in 2000- 01. There are 16 sugar mills located in the cane growing tract of Surat, Junagarh, Rajkot, Amreli, Valsagd and Bhavnagar districts.

Sugar Industry in South India:

Maharashtra has emerged as the leading sugar producer in the country. At the same time, Tamil Nadu, Karnataka and Andhra Pradesh have increased their share. They together produced 59.1 per cent of the total production in 2000-01. It was only 40.5 per cent In 1964-65. Maharashtra produces more than one-third of the total production of sugar in the country and thus, ranks first.

There are 119 sugar mills in the state in a narrow belt extending from Manmad in the north to Kolhapur in the
south. Most of these mills (87) are in the cooperative sector.

This state increased its share in total sugar production of the country from only 19.7 per cent in 1964-65 to nearly 37 per cent in 2000-01. Moreover, the recovery rate (11.6 per cent) of sugar from cane is higher and crushing period is longer (162 days). Kolhapur, Sangli, Ahmednagar, Solapur, Pune and Manmad are principal sugar producing districts in the state.

In Tamil Nadu, sugar factories are located in Coimbatore, Vellore, Tiruvanamalai, Villupuram and Tiruchirappalli districts. The state produces 8.3 per cent of total sugar production of the country. Contribution of Karnataka is 8.1 per cent; here sugar factories are located mainly in Belgaum, Bellary, Mandya, Shimoga, Bijapur and Chitradurgs districts. Contrary to these states, Andhra Pradesh lost its share from 9.5 per cent in 1964-65 to 5.7 per cent in 2000-01 in country’s sugar production.

The industry is distributed in the coastal regions, which possess suitable climatic conditions for sugarcane. East Godavari, West Godavari, Vishakhapatnam, Nizamabad, Krishna, Medak and Chittoor are sugar producing districts of the state.

By-Products of the Sugar Industry:

Important by-products are obtained during processing of sugar which are commercially very important.

1. Molasses:

It is the dark brown syrup that drains during the manufacture of sugar. It is used to manufacture industrial alcohol, fertilizers, rum and yeast.

2. Bagasse:

It is the crushed sugarcane after the juice has been extracted. It is used as organic fertilizer, cattle-feed, fuel for mills and as raw material in the manufacture of paper, fibre-board and synthetic fibres.

Vegetable Oil Industry:

Vegetable oil is an important item of Indian food as it is the major source of fat. Extracting oil from oil seeds is an age old village industry in India. India is the largest oilseeds and vegetable oil producing country in the world. It is also the biggest consumer of vegetable oil as it is the most popular cooking medium. The most common sources of oil are groundnut, mustard and rapeseed, sunflower seed, soyabean and coconut.

Vegetable oil industry of India can be divided into three broad groups depending upon the technology used.

(i) Ghani is the main technology for expelling oil in the villages. Different oil seeds are used in different areas. For example, groundnut is used in Gujarat, coconut in Kerala and mustard seed in Uttar Pradesh.

(ii) Factories using intermediate level of technology are located in towns. Oil seeds used are region specific.

(iii) Large scale sophisticated mills are located in big cities and are oriented towards bigger market. They also procure oil seeds from a much larger area.

The ordinary oil was replaced in a big way by hydrogenated oils giving semblance to ghee. Vanaspati is ‘hydrogenerated’ oil. The first vanaspati factory was established in 1930 which produced a meagre of 298 tonnes. The World War II and the levy of import duty on vanaspati gave a fillip to this industry and in 1951; there were 48 factories with a capacity of 3.3 lakh tonnes and a production of 105 thousand tonnes.

The major producing states are: Uttar Pradesh, Punjab, Haryana, Delhi, Madhya Pradesh, Maharashtra, Gujarat and West Bengal, which account for 70% of the total production. Gujarat leads all other States in vegetable oil, particularly the groundnut oil. The industry is widely spread owing to the universal nature of market, and availability of various kinds of oil seeds in different parts of the country.

Maharashtra has the largest number of Vanaspati producing units. Other important Vanaspati producing centres are—Kanpur, Amritsar, Ahmedabad, Bhavnagar, Ghaziabad, Modinagar, Hyderabad, Chennai, and Jaipur.

A Government stipulation since 1976, made the use of imported soyabean oil compulsory to the extent of 75% of the’ total oil quantity consumed by a factory. As part of liberalisation, the industry has been allowed to use expeller groundnut, sesame and mustard/rape seed oils up to a level of 30% since 1993. The public sector factories at Kozhikode, Delhi, Kanpur, Amritsar and Bhavnagar are among the largest units in the country. Together they have an installed capacity of over one lakh tonnes.

Crushing of major oil seeds, namely, groundnut, mustard and sesame is reserved for small scale oilseed grower’s co-operative section and state agro industries. In terms of the liberalised industrial policy of the Government, no licence is required for an activity relating to processing of vegetable oils, provided the proposed unit does not come under the locational policy angle.

Tea Industry:

India can offer to the world at competitive prices all varieties of tea—from the finest flavoury Darjeelings and Nilgiris and brisk Assams to a number of common varieties. Tea is an agro-based labour intensive industry. In India, it provides direct employment to over one-million persons. Through its forward and backward linkages, another 10 million people derive their livelihood from tea.

It is one of the largest employers of women among organised industries in India (women workforce is 50% of the total workforce). The industry continues to maintain its track record of growth. From a level of 560 million kg in 1981 to an all time record high of 870 million kg in 1998—the achievement has been exemplary.

Some Recent Trends:

i. A shadow of uncertainty has fallen on the tea industry due to successive years of price decline.

ii. Over the years, there has been a clear shift towards CTC teas. Orthodox manufacture came down from million kg (20 per cent of the total crop) in 1990 to 78 million kg in 1999 and now it is below 100 million kg.

This is against the position in the world market where orthodox tea forms 50%, CTC 36% and Green Tea 14%

iii. Larger availability of CTC has resulted to oversupply in the domestic market leading to lowering of prices and reduced availability for export and hence lower exports.

iv. Internal consumption of tea has grown from 319 million kg in 1981 to a staggering 697 million kg in 2003.

In the international arena, the industry faces major challenges. The sweeping changes in the erstwhile Soviet Union and major economic upheavels in Key West Asian markets have compelled India to look for fresh pastures and to respond more flexibly to the emerging trading conditions.

v. A remarkable feature of exports during 2002 was the sharp rise in shipments to Iraq which had become second largest (22%) destination of Indian tea after Russia (24%).

The depressed exports scenario can be attributed to:

1. Yielding space to Sri Lanka in the international market particularly Russia, where orthodox tea has again become popular.

2. Ban on tea imports by Iran in 2003 adversely affecting India’s Orthodox production and exports.

3. Large quantities of indifferent quality tea (CIF as low as Rs. 38.18 per kg), are being imported and re-exported severely affecting India’s quality image in international market.

4. Insignificant or no exports to large markets like Egypt, Libya and Pakistan. Egypt is a vast CTC market but Indian exports are severely affected because of COMESA tariff arrangements. Exports to Libya have come to zero after a dispute on quality with some Indian exporter, affecting 20 million kg orthodox market.

Coffee Industry:

Coffee is grown over a constricted area around the Nilgiris in Western Ghats because of its narrow range of agro-climatic conditions. The crop require hot-west climate and is very sensitive to frost. The plant cannot bear strong sun and as much it is grown in shade. Over 100 cms of well-distributed rain is a must as the plant cannot tolerate long spells of drought. Plenty of labour is needed for prunning, plucking, separating the seeds, washing-drying in the sun for about a week and other marketing operations.

Coffee is cultivated in about 3.49 lakh hectares in India mainly spread over 3 southern states, namely Karnataka (57.8%), Kerala (24.3%) and Tamil Nadu (8.8%). Arabica and Robusta are the two varieties grown comprising of 48% and 52% of the area respectively.

Over 80% of coffee produced in the country is exported. The annual domestic consumption is around 50-60 tonnes. In recent years, global coffee prices have fallen due to global oversupply thus adversely affecting all the coffee producing countries including India.

Essay on the Air Transport System in India

Civil Aviation in India started in 1911 when Mail (Dock) was for the first time carried by air from Allahabad to Naini. In 1920 the organised air transport service was started. In 1927 Civil Aviation Department was set up on the recommendation of Air Transport Council. In 1932 Tata Airways Limited introduced air services between Karachi and Lahore. In 1928 Flyings Clubs were opened in Delhi, Karachi, Kolkata and Mumbai.

Directorate General of Civil Aviation:

Today the Directorate General of Civil Aviation operates the Civil Airports of India except the International Airports. It is also responsible for the air navigation and services including air traffic control and services for regularity and safety of aircraft operations. In 1953 on the recommendation of Planning Commission Air transport was nationalised and two autonomous corporations were set up—Indian Airlines Corporation and Air India International Corporation.

Later on after liberalisation of the economy, number of private scheduled airlines and air taxi has emerged. Indian Airlines, Alliance Air (subsidiary of Indian Airlines) and other private airlines provide domestic air services. Indian Airlines operations also extend to the neighbouring countries like Nepal, Pakistan, South East Asia and Middle East. Air India provides international air services.

Pawan Hans renamed Pawan Hans Helicopters Limited provides helicopter services to ONGC in its shore operations and to inaccessible areas and difficult terrains. The Government has ended the monopoly of Indian Airlines and Air India on the scheduled operations by repealing the Air Corporation Act 1953. There are the present two private scheduled airlines operating on the domestic network rendering the passengers a wide choice of flights. Apart from this 47 Air Taxi operators are providing non-scheduled air services.

A new policy on domestic air transport services was approved in April 1997 according to which barriers to entry and exist from this sector have been removed; choice of aircraft type and size has been left to the operator, entry of serious entrepreneurs only has been ensured and equity from foreign airlines, directly or indirectly in this sector has been prohibited.

Greenfield Airports:

Bangalore International Airport:

A Greenfield airport at Devanahalli near Bangalore is being implemented on a Build-Own Operate and Transfer (Boot) basis developed with Public Private Participation. The Government has signed a Concession Agreement with the Bangalore International Airport on 5 July 2004. Other project related agreements have also been signed and financial closure has been achieved on 23 June 2005. The first phase of the project is likely to be completed by mid of 2008.

Hyderabad International Airport:

The Government of Andhra Pradesh (GOAP) have selected a consortium led by M/s GMR Infrastructure Limited with Malaysian Airport Holding Berhard (MAHB) as the developer for Greenfield Airport at Shamshabad near Hyderabad. A Concession Agreement has been signed with the Hyderabad International Airport Ltd. on 20 December 2004. The project achieved financial closure on 22 August 2005. Work is to be completed by mid 2008.

The approximate cost of the Project is Rs.1760 crore. The Committee on Infrastructure under the chairmanship of the Prime Minister approved the development of 35 non-metro plans on airport each at Arunachal Pradesh and Sikkim airports by 2010-11.

Air India:

At the end of 1947, Air India submitted a plan to the Government for the formation of Air India International Limited with Government participation to operate international services. The plan was approved and Air India International launched its first service to London via Cairo and Geneva on 8 June 1984 with Constellation aircraft.

In 1952, the Planning Commission recommended the nationalisation of Air Transport Industry, which was effected on 1 August 1953, with the creation of two nationalised Corporations – Air India International Limited which retained its identity and international flag carrier status and Indian Airlines, to operate domestic services.

On 1 May 2002, Air India Limited was incorporated as a Public Limited Company under the Companies Act, 1956 with the main object of succeeding the undertaking of Air India. The undertaking of Air India was transferred to and vested in Air India Limited with effect from 1 March 1994 in pursuance of the air Corporations (Transfer of Undertakings and Repeal) Act, 1994. Air India owns a fleet of 115 aircraft consisting of Eight B777-200 LR, Nine B777 300 ER, Twenty A 320, Nineteen A 319.

Network:

Air India operates 173 fights per week serving 59 stations (45 international and 14 domestic). Air India also has code-share agreements with 12 airlines to offer its passengers more destinations and convenient connections.

Subsidiaries:

Air India has four subsidiary companies viz. Hotel Corporation of India Ltd. (HCI), Air India Charters Ltd. (AICL), Air India Air Transport Services Ltd. (AIATSL), and Air India Engineering Services Ltd. (AIESL).

(i) HCI:

The Hotel Corporation of India Limited (HCI) is a Public Limited Company wholly owned by Air India Limited and was incorporated in 8 July 1971 under the Companies Act,. 1956 when Air India decided to enter the Hotel Industry in keeping with the then prevalent trends among world airlines.

The objective was to offer to the passengers a better product, both at the International Airports and a other places of tourist interest, thereby also increasing tourism to India. However, in 2002-2003, three properties of HCI viz. Indo-Hokke Hotel Limited (Centaur Hotel, Rajgir), Centaur Hotel, Juhu Beach and Centaur Hotel, Mumb airport were sold of the remaining units of IHCI are Centaur Hotel, Delhi Airport, Centaur Hotel, Lakeview, Srinagar and Flight Kitchens at Delhi and Mumbai.

(ii) AICL:

Air India Express, a budget carrier which was launched under the aegis of AICL, successfully completed one year of operation on 29 April 2006. With induction of new B737-800 aircraft, its fleet size has gone up to 7 planes. These aircraft have a seating capacityof189.

The Air India Express is planning to add new Indian stations like Tiruchirapalli, Managlore, Chennai and Amritsar, in addition to existing Kochi, Kozhikode and Thiruvananthapuram. Till winter ’05, the airline’s network was restricted to only Gult destinations like Dubai, Sharjah, and Al Ain. Muscat and Salalah.

The Company will be expanding its operations to SE Asia with the start of a daily service between Chennai and Singapore/Kuala Lumpur. Indian Airlines was set up under the Air Corporations Act, 1953 with an initial capital of Rs.3.25 crore with its Corporate Headquarters at Delhi. The undertaking of Indian Airlines was transferred to and vested in Indian Airlines Limited with effect from 1 March 1994 in pursuance of the Air Corporations (Transfer of Undertakings and Repeal) Act, 1994.

The Indian Airlines Ltd. has been merged with Air India Ltd. The Consolidated Company is named as National Aviation Company of India Ltd. It operates as under Govt. Al as well as IC code. Air India has a subsidiary low cost carrier Air India Express.

Pawan Hans Helicopters:

The Pawan Hans Helicopters Ltd.(PHHL) is one of India’s leading helicopter companies and is known for its reliable helicopter operations. The company was incorporated in 1985 with the objective of providing helicopter services to the petroleum sector, linking inaccessible area of the country and operating charters for promotion of tourism.

Since its inception the company has operated number of helicopters by offering wide range of services to its clients through well balanced fleet of 45 helicopters consisting of Bell 206L4, Bell 407, Dauphin SA 365N, Dauphin AS 365N3 and Ni-172 PHHL is the only aviation company India being awarded ISO 9001: 2000 certification for its entire gamut of activities. The company has also developed two bell 407 helicopters for operations at Katra for Mata Vaishno Devi from April 2008 ourselves.

Training Centres:

Indira Gandhi Rashtriya Uran Akademi:

The Indira Gandhi Rashtriaya Uran Akademi located at Fursatganj (UP) is an autonomous body under Ministry of Civil Aviation, Government of India. The Akademi has been established to train pilots to achieve higher standards in flying and ground training.

The Akademi is equipped with modern and sophisticated trainer aircraft, flight simulators, computer based training system (CBI), own ATC, runway with modern navigational and landing aids like DVOR/DME & ILS and own airspace.

It has various audio-visual training aids and other facilities for imparting effective flying and ground training by the most qualified personnel. Flying training is conducted on 13 Trinidad TB-20 single engine, 6 Zlin and 2 King Air C-90A twin-engine turbo-prop executive class aircraft, fitted with modern instruments and avionics. Ab-initio to Commercial Pilots License (CPL), PPL to CPL courses with multiengine aircraft endorsement and Instrument Rating are conducted on a regular basis.

Flying Training School at Gondia:

The Ministry of Civil Aviation has proposed to establish a premier pilot training institute at Gondia, Maharashtra to augment the ongoing efforts of Flying Training Schools for increasing the number of qualified and well-trained pilots, to tackle the huge demand for pilots in the industry. The Planning Commission has approved the proposal “in principle” for setting up of a Premier Flying Training Institute at Gondia, Maharashtra during the Tenth Five-Year Plan period.

The Airports Authority of India (AAI) has taken over the existing land measuring 321.54 hectares from the State Government of Maharashtra on 31 December 2005 at Gondia. Additional land measuring 84.38 hectares has also been taken over on 31 December 2005 from Maharashtra Government by AAI on payment basis. The terms and conditions of payments would be finalised in the MoU to be signed between AAI and Government of Maharashtra.

The proposed institute is to be registered as a subsidiary company of Airports Authority of India and is eventually planned to be run on JV basis with the participation of aviation stakeholders. The project is estimated to cost Rs.364.31 crore approx.

Essay on the Chemical Industry in India

It is the fourth largest industry in size next to iron and steel, textile and engineering industries. This industry has witnessed rapid growth both in organic and inorganic chemical industries. This industry is responsible for producing a wide range of products like fertilisers, drugs, dye, stilts, pesticides, paints and plastic etc.

It is highly technology oriented industry and therefore a lot of emphasis is laid on research and development the industry produces raw material for a number of other industries as well as large number of capital and consumer goods. The Indian Chemical Industry ranks 12th by volume in the world production of chemicals. The Industry’s current turnover is about US $ 30 billion which is 14 per cent of the total manufacturing output in the country.

In terms of consumption, the chemical industry is its own largest customer and accounts for approximately 33 per cent of the consumption. The industry faces many challenges in the liberalized economy. Drastic reduction in import duties from more than 150 per cent to the present level of 30 per cent has made the market extremely competitive. Setting up of massive capacities by multinational companies in Singapore, Malaysia, South Korea, Taiwan and Japan have only made the competition more cut throat.

Chemical industry may be divided into two categories: (i) Heavy Chemical Industry (ii) Fine Chemical Industry. Heavy Chemical Industry can further be sub-divided into: (i) Heavy Inorganic Chemicals and (ii) Heavy Organic Chemicals.

Heavy Inorganic Chemicals:

The heavy chemical industry produces chemicals like sulphuric acid, caustic soda and soda ash. This is a basic or key industry on which depend a variety of other industries like the paper, fertilizer, textile, paint industries.

The production of sulphuric acid is considered a reliable index of the country’s state of industrialization. Heavy chemicals manufacture products like common acids, alkalis, alcohol, caustic soda, salt, chemical fertilizer, sulphuric, hydrochloric and nitric acids, phosphates, ammonium sulphates and plastic raw materials. The important centres for the manufacture of heavy chemicals are Kolkata, Mumbai, Kanpur, Delhi, and Amritsar. Chennai and Bangalore. India is lacking in sulphur which is the raw material for

Sulphuric Acid:

It is important of all the chemicals and is largely used in leather tanning, textile finishing, and oil refining, for ordnance requirements, in the production of explosives and cleaning of brass. Other uses of sulphuric acid are in fertilizer, dyes and intermediates, explosives, synthetic fibres and plastics. More than 86% of the capacity is based on elemental sulphur which is imported and hence the industry is concentrated near sea ports.

In the beginning of 20th century this industry was established in Kolkata, Chennai, Mumbai and Jamshedpur. Mostly the factories are set up in Maharashtra, West Bengal, Gujarat, and Tamil Nadu. Even though there has been tremendous increase in the production of sulphuric acid, but these have not been able to meet the domestic requirements.

The leading sulphuric acid producing companies include : M/s Dharamsi Morarji Chemical Co, Mumbai; Hindustan Zinc Ltd, Debari; Hindustan Copper, Khetri; Gujarat State Feritlizers and Chemicals, Vadodra; Nirma Ltd, Ahmedabad : and Jay Shree Tea & Industries, Calcutta.

Caustic Soda:

The first plant of caustic soda production was set up in 1936 at Methur (Tamil Nadu). The industry has grown steadily since then and there are around 40 units producing caustic soda in India at present.

It is mainly used in industries like soap, textile, paper, oil refining. Before independence there was not much production of caustic soda, but after independence during planning era a number of units were set up at Kolkata, Nagpur, Ahmedabad, Porbandar, Rishra, Delhi, Durgapur, Titagarh, and Kota etc. Caustic soda is a basic inorganic chemical used in the manufacture of pulp and paper, viscose rayon, aluminium metal, textiles, vanaspati and other chemicals.

A significant quantity is used in the manufacture of other inorganic chemicals and dye stuffs, in metallurgical operations and in petroleum refining. It’s by-product chlorine, is another important chemical used in water treatment, paper and pulp, soap and detergents, textiles and a variety of other industries.

Since the industry is highly power intensive, cost of power constituting more than 2/3rd of the production cost, the future of this industry depends on the availability of power at reasonable cost. Many units for this reason have captive power plants and most others running into rough weather due to the increase in SEB’s new higher power tariffs.

Soda Ash:

The first soda ash plant was setup at Dharngadhra in Gujarat in 1932. Soda ash is the basic chemi­cal used in a large number of industries especially in glass, soap and detergents, textile and paper industries. The production of soda ash has also increased tremendously since 1950-51. The term fine chemicals are applied usually to substance, such as photographic materials, drugs and pharma­ceutical products, paints, pigments and varnishes and dyestuffs.

Others:

Among the allied chemicals, calcium carbonate, potassium chlorate, hydrogen peroxide, borax, sodium thiosulphate and aluminium chloride are important ones produced in the country. The new chemicals manufactured for the first time in the country in the 1970s include fluoro carbon refrigerant gases, electrolytic manganese dioxide, phosphamidon sulpha methisine and dimethyliniline.

A major chemical complex has been erected by the Gujarat Alkalies and Chemicals in collaboration with Friedrich under of Germany near Baroda. It has an annual production capacity of 37,425 tonnes of caustic soda, 33,000 tonnes of chlorine and 6,000 tonnes of hydrochloric acid. The GSFC promotes and serves as a catalyst to the complex. The plant has the benefit of proximity to major consumers like the GSFC, Baroda Rayon Corporation and several other chlorine based units as well as textile mills.

Pharmaceuticals:

Making of medicines is an old industry in the country. The drugs and pharmaceuticals industry is growing very fast since independence. A milestone was established in the history of pharmaceutical industry when pencillin factory manufacturing Antibiotics was set at Pimpil (near Pune) in the early 1960s and also Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (IDPL) plants at Rishikesh and Hyderabad was established. These industries have developed the base for the industry.

Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. has a number of plants at Mumbai, Baroda, and Chennai. Delhi. Kolkata and Kanpur and a number of units are engaged in this industry of vital importance. There are about 5000 small scale sector units besides about 300 large scale units in the country. There is large scale collaboration by Indian companies with foreign company of UK, USA and Germany.

The companies under the public sector units are (I) Indian Drugs and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (2) Hindustan Antibiotic Ltd. (HAL) (3) Bengal Chemical and Pharmaceuticals Ltd. (BCLPL) (4) Smith Stanistreet Pharmaceutical Ltd. (SSPL) and (5) Bengal Immunity Ltd. (BIL). More than 30 per cent production of bulk drugs comes from the small scale units. Although India has started manufacturing all sorts of life saving drugs even then she has to import many drugs from other countries.

The Indian Drug and Pharmaceuticals industry ranks fourth in worldwide accounting for 8 per cent of world production by volume and 1.5 percent by value. India ranks 17th in terms of export value of bulk actives and doses drugs. lt exports drugs to about 200 countries including the highly regulated markets of Europe, USA, Japan and Australia.

Pesticides:

Agriculture at present makes use of large quantities of pesticides along with chemical fertiliser. The industry is divided into 67 large units (ten of them multinational companies) in the organised sector which takes care of all the requirement of technical grade and over 400 SSI units. The only PSU in the sector is Hindustan Insecticide Limited (HIL) with three units.

A number of plants are engaged in the production of pesticides in the country of which the most important company is the Hindustan Insecticides Ltd. with plants at Delhi and Alwaye (Kerala).

The per capita consumption of pesticides in India is low in comparison to other countries. It is only 0.45 kg per ha as compared to 13.35 kg per ha in Italy, 9.18 kg per ha in Japan, 6.56 kg per ha in South Korea and 0.58 kg per ha in United States. However India ranks 12th in agro- pesticides globally and second in Asia alone. The demand of various types of pesticides in the country is of the order of 43,380 mt. (technical grade). Insecticides accounts for 76% of the total domestic market.

The Fertilizer Industry:

India is predominantly an agricultural nation. For a good yield of crops it is important for the soil to be fed regularly with additional nutrients like nitrogen, phosphate and potash. Every tonne of nutrient fertilizer increases the yield by about 10 tonnes of food grains.

The annual consumption of fertilizer is a good indicator of the country’s performance in crop production. This need for fertilizers has been largely responsible for making the manufacture of fertilizers the largest sector in the Indian Chemical Industry.

The raw materials for this industry are gypsum, pyrite, coal (from ammonia gas), slag from blast furnaces and naphtha (residual product of petroleum refining). Of the four nutrients Nitrogen (N), Phosphorous (P), Potash (K) and Sulphur (S) ore lost through crops. Indian industry caters to the requirement of the three: N, P and S. There is no conversion activity involved in the case of K except trading or mixing in the final stage of fertiliser prodution.

As a result of India’s growing need for fertilizers, fertilizer factories have been set up in almost every State. The first fertiliser plant in India was set up at Ranipet in Tamil Nadu in 1906. The real growth of the industry began with the establishment of a plant at Sindri by the Fertiliser Corporation of India (FCI) in 1951. The increased demand of fertiliser, as a result of Green Revolution, led to the spread of this industry in several parts of India.

Gujarat, Tamil Nadu, Uttar Pradesh, Punjab and Kerala produce more than half of the total fertiliser production in India. Andhra Pradesh, Orissa, Rajasthan Bihar, Maharashtra, Assam, West Bengal, Goa, Delhi. Madhya Pradesh and Karnataka are other important producers. Because of easy availability of natural gas the fertiliser industry is widely spread in the country. India produces about 11 million tonnes of nitrogenous, 4 million tonnes of phosphatic and 1.7 million tonnes of potassic fertilisers.

The country is required to Import potassium from abroad. Six decades of planning and development of the fertilizer industry have brought India to the frontline of fertilizer producing countries. India today is the third largest producer of nitrogenous fertilizers in the world.

At present, there are 56 large size fertilizers units in the country manufacturing a wide range of nitrogenous, phosphate and complex fertilizers out of these 30 units produce urea, 21 units produce DAP and complex fertilizers. The production of fertilizer during 2009-10 was 119.00 lakh MT of Nitrogen and 43.21 lakh MT of phosphate. The production Target for 2010-11 was 125.16 lakh MT of Nitrogen and 48.70 lakh MT phosphate.

Fertilizers Production:

Maharashtra:

The state has 9 units, 5 of which are located at Trombay, and one each at Ambarnath, Loni- Kalbhor and Thai Vaishet. The RCF’s units at Trombay have seen several massive expansions. The Maharashtra Agro Industries Development Corporation’s phosphoric acid plants at Rasayani and Pachora were completed in the 1980s. Terminal facilities to facilitate the import of ammonia were commissioned in 1974.

The huge public sector complex of Rashtriya Chemicals and Fertilizers,-based on free and associated gas from Bombay High at That (Kolaba district) comprises 2 ammonia and 3 urea plants and a captive thermal power plant. It produces 8.9 lakh tonnes of ammonia and 14.8 lakh tonnes of urea/year.

Tamil Nadu:

The state is an important producer of fertilizers. About 75% of its installed capacity is for nitrogenous fertilizers and the remaining for phosphatic fertilizers. The units are located at Neyveli, Ranipet, Tuticorin, Ennore, Coimbatore, Cuddalore, Avad and Manali. The first 4 produce both the types and the other 4 only phosphatic fertilizers.

Uttar Pradesh:

The state produces mostly phosphatic fertilizers. The units are at Gorakhpur, Magarwara, Varanasi, Jagdishpur, Phulpur, Aonla, Shahjahanpur, Babrala and Kanpur.

The FCI’s unit at Gorakhpur has been expanded to produce 1.3 lakh tonnes and the IFFCO’s ammonia urea complex at Phulpur has an installed capacity of 9.5 lakh tonnes.

Kerala:

Kerala has 3 large units of fertilizers located at Alwaye and Cochin producing both nitrogenous and phosphatic fertilizers. Their installed capacity is about 8 lakh tonnes/year. The phase II Expansion of the Cochin Plant was completed in 1980 and of the Always unit in 1998.

Andhra Pradesh:

The state has over 10 lakh tonnes installed capacity, about 75% of which is for nitrogenous fertilizers. Only the Visakhapatnam unit produces both the types; all the other 4 units at Maula Ali (Hyderabad), Tadepalli, Tanuku, Nidadavole and Kakinada produce only nitrogenous.

The construction of the FCI’s coal based unit at Ramagundem and the expansion of the Visakhapatnam unit were completed in 1980 and NFC’s Kakinada plant was commissioned in 1997. With these the state’s installed capacity has increased substantially.

Odisha:

The state produces only nitrogenous fertilizers. There are 2 units, one each at Rourkela (SAIL) and Taleher (FCI). A new plant with 1.2 lakh tonnes capacity has been sanctioned at Paradeep.

Rajasthan:

The Shriram Chemical’s plant at Kota alone accounts for 57% of the state’s capacity. It produces only nitrogenous fertilizers from naphtha. The HZL’s unit at Debari is an adjunct to the zinc smelter utilising sulphuric acid produced by the latter, while HCL has an adjunct at Khetri. The CFCL’s urea plant at Gadepan was commissioned in 1997. The setting up of 2 new plants based on local rock phosphates and pyrites at Saladipur (Sikar district) and Chittorgarh are under active consideration.

Bihar:

The state has 5 units and accounts for about 5 lakh tonnes installed capacity The Sindri, Barauni and Jamshedpur plants produce only nitrogenous fertilizers, while the state owned Dhanbad unit and the PPCL unit at Amjhore produce only phosphates.

Gujarat:

The state with over 35? lakh tonnes capacity/year is a leading producer of fertilizer. The GSFC unit at Vadodra and the IFFCO unit at Kalol produce both types; all the other units at Vadodra (Alembic Chemicals), Broach, Udhna, Kandla and Bhavnagar produce only phosphates. Kandla’s capacity is being raised to 10 lakh tonnes. KRIBHCO’s Hazira unit is the largest producer in the state.

Others:

In Punjab, the NFL has 3 units, 2 at Nangal and one at Bhatinda. All produce nitrogenous fertilizers. Assam has 2 units, one each at Namrup and Chanderpur. Namrup will have one more plant based on ammonia from natural gas. West Bengal has 4 small units – at Burnpur, Durgapur (SAIL), Haldia (Hindustan Lever Ltd), Rishra and Khardah. Madhya Pradesh has 4 units one each at Bhilai, Kumhari, Korba, and Bijaipur.

The DCM plant in Delhi produces only phosphates. Karnataka has 3 units located at Mangalore, Belagola and Munirabad. Goa has only one unit under private sector with a capacity of 1.75 lakh tonnes of nitrogen at Sancoale (near Vasco). A new plant with an annual production capacity of 2.35 lakh tonnes has been erected by the IFFCO at Panipat (Haryana).

Heavy Organic Chemicals:

Petrochemicals:

Petrochemicals are those chemicals and compounds which are derived from petroleum resources. These chemicals are used for manufacturing a large variety of articles such as synthetic fibres, synthetic rubber, ferrous and non-ferrous metals, plastics, dye-stuffs, insecticides, drugs and pharmaceuticals.

This is one of the fastest growing sectors in Indian economy. This sector’s yearly output is approximately Rs. 1, 20,000 crore which is 15 per cent of the manufacturing sector’s output compared to about 10 per cent in the chemical industry and 8 per cent of industrial sector.

This group of industries is growing very fast in India. A variety of products come under this category of industries. In 1960s demand of organic chemicals increased so fast that it became difficult to meet them by chemicals prepared from alcohol, calcium carbide, and coal.

At the same time, petroleum refining industry expanded rapidly. Many things are derived from crude petroleum, which provide raw materials to several new industries; these are collectively known as petrochemical industries.

This group of industries is divisible into four sub-groups: (I) polymers, (ii) synthetic fibres, (iii) elastomers, and (iv) surfactant intermediate. Mumbai is the hub of petrochemical industries. Cracker units are also located in Auraiya (Uttar Pradesh), Jamnagar, Gandhar, Hazira (Gujarat) Nagothane, Ratnagiri (Maharashtra), Haldia (West Bengal) and Vishakhapatnam (Andhra Pradesh).

Following are the important plants associated with the production of petrochemicals in the country.

1. Union Carbide India Ltd.:

This is the first petrochemical complex established at Trombay in 1966 with annual capacity of 60,000 tons naphtha cracker. It has capacity of producing 11,000 tons of petro­chemical products like polyethylene, butyl alcohol, acetic acid, ethyl acetate, ethyl hex anal and dactyl phthalate.

2. Herdillia Chemicals Ltd.:

This plant was commissioned at Chennai in collaboration with the Distillers Co. Ltd. of U.K., and Hercules Powder Co. of U.S.A. It produces intermediate products for nylon; phenols are resins, acetate rayons, solvents, plastics, plasticizers, P.V.C. etc.

3. National Organic Chemicals Industries Ltd.:

It has been set up by Mafatlala at Thane (near Mumbai) in 1968. It is an integrated plant using latest technology and highly mechanised and auto-matic process for its working. The plant has naphtha cracking capacity of 225,000 tons to produce ethylene, propylene, benzene, butadiene, ethylene oxide, polythylene glycol, ethylene dichloride, V.C., P.V.C., is opropanol and 2-thyl-rexanol.

4. Indian Petro-chemical Corporation Ltd.:

It is a public sector undertaking incorporated in March 1969 at Jawaharnagar (near Vadodara). It is responsible for the manufacture and distribution of various petrochemicals like polymers, synthetic organic chemicals, fibers and fiber intermediates. The plant consists of a number of units like aromatic plant, DMT plant, naphtha cracker and polymer plants. It annually produces 24,000 tons of DMT (21,000 tons of orthosylene and 2,500 tons of mixed xylene.

The naphtha cracker plant manufactures 18,000 tons of butadiene, 130,000 tons of ethylene, 71,000 tons of propylene and 24,000 tons of benzene. The plant mainly draws its raw materials from the Gujarat refinery.

5. The Bongaigaon Petrochemicals Ltd.:

It is the second public sector unit-set up at Bongaigaon (Assam) as an adjunct to the one million tone Bongaigaon refinery. The complex envisages manufacture of 30,000 tons of polyester fiber, and 10,550 tons of ortho-xylene. The complex draws its raw materials from the Bongaigaon and Noonmati refineries.

6. The Petrofils Co-operative Limited (PCL):

It is a joint venture of the Government of India and Weavers’ Co-operative Societies whose three plants are located at Vadodara and Naldhari in Gujarat. The spandex plant at Naldhari manufactures spandex yarn for the first time in the country which is utilised in making swimming suits, underwear garments, etc. due to its elastic properties. The plant also produces polyester filament yarn and nylon chips.

7. The Reliance Industries, Hazira:

The installation of a 7.5 lakh tons a year cracker complex of Reliance Industries at Hazira has brought the country very close to self-sufficiency in petrochemical building blocks.

8. Others:

Petrochemical complexes have also been set up at Koyali, Haldia, Barauni, Jamnagar, Auraiya, Gandhar, Vishakhapatnam, Tengaghat (Assam), Payal (near Ludhiana), Mangalore etc. The estimated total investment in all these projects is around Rs. 50,000 crores.

The industry has also been delicensed under the liberalization programme as a result of which multinationals like Dow Chemical’s (USA), Mitsubishi (Japan) and BP -(UK) etc are showing interest. In due course, the fight will be between the MNCs on one hand and domestic players led by RIL and IPCL on the other.

Cement Industry:

After steel, cement is the next most essential material for construction. The consumption of cement indicates the economic development of the country, as it reflects the construction activities in the country. Higher consumption indicates greater construction activities which mean that the country is developing rapidly.

The first cement factory was set up at Chennai in 1904. The cement industry comprised of 171 large cement plants with an installed capacity of 293.04 million tonnes and more than 350 mini cement plants with an estimated capacity of 11.10 million tonnes per annunm for a total installed capacity of 304.14 million tonnes as on 30.11.2011.

The raw materials needed for this industry are limestone, gypsum, clay and coal. All these are bulky commodities required in large quantities and therefore involve high cost of transport. Every tonne of cement produced needs one and a half tonnes of limestone as raw material. In recent years slag from steel plants and sludge from fertilizer plants are being used as a substitute for limestone.

Cement is essential for building houses, factories, roads and dams. Manufacturing of cement requires heavy materials like limestone, silica, alumina and gypsum, and hence, this is a raw material-oriented industry. Coal and electric power are its other requirements. The first cement plant was set up at Chennai in 1904.

The industry expanded mainly after independence. The cement industry in India is by and large self-sufficient both in raw material availability and process technology as well as indigenous sources of plant and machinery. It has a high capacity utilisation and contributes to 6 per cent of the world production. The industry employs 1, 35,000 people while creating a substantially higher proportion of indirect employment through machinery manufacture, material and services.

As on March, 2003, there are 124 large and over 300 mini cement plants in the country. They together have an installed capacity of 151.32 million tonnes of cement per annum. India produces a variety of cement, they are of good quality, and hence, have a ready market in south and East Asia. The annual production of cement in the country at present is 116.35 million tonnes with a growth rate of 8.84 per cent.

Manufacturing Processes:

For the manufacture of Portland cement, limestone is cleaned of all foreign matter and ground into a fine powder by using 30-40% water, if the rock material already contains up to 10% moisture; but if it is dry, no water is added These methods are referred to as wet and dry processes respectively.

Whereas the first requires large quantities of water, the Second needs more amount of power. The ground matter is roasted in rotary kilns at temperatures up to 2500°-3000°C to fuse and form lime-stone into clinkers which are ground once again by adding small quantities of gypsum so as to retard the rate of setting or hardening.

Problems of the Cement Industry:

1. Sources of raw material are not located at convenient places and so the centres of consumption are far from the centres of production.

2. Cost of transport is high as the raw material as well as the finished product is bulky.

3. Prices controlled by the government are too low and the cost of production is high, therefore production is not profitable. This causes cement shortage and spiralling prices.

Glass Industry:

Indians are known to have acquired the knowledge of making glass since time immemorial. Glass industry came into being in India in 16th century when items like bangles, small bottles and flasks were made. By 17th century, enam ailed glass was produced at a number of places in Karnataka and Uttar Pradesh.

Although glass industry on modern lines was started in the 19th century, the real growth started only after 1932. The first successful organised glass factory was set up in 1941. The industry underwent large scale modernisation after Independence. Glass industry is a delicenced Industry. Glass industry covers items such as flat, Glass, hollow-were containers, vacuum, flasks, refills, laboratory, glassware and other items such as bangles beads pearls etc.

The production of glass sheet. Toughened glass, fiber, Glass, Glass bottles during 2011-12, respectively 79812.61 thousand sqmtrs. 2003775.31 Sq Mtrs. 32206.28 tonnes and 942669.32 tonnes.

Raw Materials:

Sand, silica, soda ash, feldspar and limestone are the basic raw materials required by the industry; silica, basic acids, dolomite, barium oxide, sulphur and copper are used in small quantities. All these are produced indigenously; only some quantities of soda ash are imported.

Distribution:

Uttar Pradesh, West Bengal, Maharashtra and Tamil Nadu are the main glass producing states and contribute the bulk of production.

Uttar Pradesh:

Firozabad in Agra district is the largest producer having as many as 100 small factories. The other major centres of glass production are Bahjoi, Naini, Hiranagau, Shikohabad, Hathras, Sasni, Allahabad and Jaunpur.

Uttar Pradesh has the advantage of locally available raw materials and ready market for glass and glass products. Skilled glass workers known as shisgars of Firozabad have been engaged in the process of glass making for several generations and provide cheap and skilled labour for this purpose. Only coal has to be transported from Bihar and West Bengal.

West Bengal:

The state has 34 factories located at different places like Calcutta, Haora, Raniganj, Belgachiya, Beigharia, Belur, Sitarampur, Rishra, Durgapur and Asansol. Pure sand of high quality is available from the white Damudas sandstones at Mangalbat and Patharghata. Sand is also obtained from Bargarh and Lohagra near Allahabad. Good quality coal is obtained from the nearby coalfields at Jharia and Raniganj. Good market is readily available in the Hugli industrial region.

Maharashtra:

The state has 22 factories. Main centres of glass industry are Mumbai, Talegaon (Pune), Satara, Nagpur and Kolhapur. The industry specializes in bottles, shells, flasks, lampware, beakers and sheet glass.

The other producers are Gujarat (Bharuch Vadodara, Morvi and Panchmahal), Tamil Nadu (Salem, Chennai, Coimbatore), Bihar (Kandra Bhawaninagar, Patna, Jamshedpur, Kahalgaon), Rajasthan (Dhaulpur and Jaipur), Haryana, (Ambala and Faridabad), Andhra Pradesh (Warrangal and Hyderabad), Delhi (Shahdara), Punjab (Amritsar), Kerala (Alwaye), Orissa (Barang, Cuttack), Madhya Pradesh (Jabalpur, Gondia), Assam (Guwahati) and Karnataka (Bangalore).

Types of Glass Products:

Sheet Glass:

Various sizes and shades of sheet, wired and figured glasses are being manufactured by modern processes such as the Forcault Process and Pittsburg System. Its production is steadily increasing, particularly the thicker varieties, which are used for mirror making, safety glass, table tops and various other industrial applications.

Float Glass:

Upto 1992, only sheet glass was manufactured in India and float glass was imported in limited quantities. The first float glass unit was set up in India in 1993. Between 1993 and 1996, the demand for float glass increased at 10-12% annually. The industry has a bright future in view of the low per capita consumption of only 0.4 kg in India compared to 2.5 kg in Indonesia and 3.5 kg in China. At present sheet and float glass both are exported to South Asia, South East Asia, South and East Africa.

Container ware:

There are 9 large factories having 54 fully automatic glass container forming machines. They cater to the demands of the pharmaceutical, dairy, beverage, food preserving, chemicals, dyes and cosmetics industries. Glass vials, small bottles and vacuum flasks are already available for export. The present installed capacity in automatic machine made bottle sector is 14.66 lakh tonnes.

Glass Shells:

The first glass shell factory was started in 1938 near Calcutta for an electric lamp manufacturing unit. As glass shells, glass tubes and .rods comprise about 90% of the raw materials required for lamp making, and the demand for these was continuously rising, several glass shell factories were started in Mumbai, Pune, Bangalore, Calcutta and Shikohabad. The present installed capacity is 40 crore of shells.

Vacuum Flask and Refills:

There are at present 8 manufacturing units in the country. Their installed capacity is 36 million pieces. The vacuum flask and refill units operate in small ovens and use mouth blowing technique. About 30% of the total production is exported to the US, the UK, Germany, etc.

Laboratory/Science Related Glassware:

The laboratory glassware including neutral glass, tubing, laboratory glassware and chemical components, etc. are produced in 6 units with an installed capacity of 40,000 tonnes for tubing. Small quantities of neutral tubes are imported. Neutral tubes are being replaced by plastics which have affected the demand.

Ceramic Industry:

The excavations of Mohenjo-Daro and Harappa have revealed that ceramics were extensively used in India during the prehistoric times. The first ceramic factory in the country, however, was started at Patharghatta (Bihar) in 1860; Glazed tiles were for the first time produced in the country in the same year.

The discovery of China clay deposits at various places added a new dimension to the growth of the industry and a number of factories came up in Madhya Pradesh, West Bengal, Bihar, Kerala, Gujarat and Karnataka. The industry had a boom during World War II.

Clay, Feldspar, quartz and hydrated gypsum are the major raw materials of ceramics industry. Producing of tableware in the form of stone utensils, semiglass ware and earthenware and related items namely, dinner sets, tea sets, cups and plates, jars, etc. is reserved for the small scale industry. Ceramic industry produces a wide range of products, the outstanding being sanitary wares, porcelin wares, stoneware, enamel ware, tiles, crockery, insulators, etc.

These products are used for a variety of purposes such as generation and transmission of power, construction of modern buildings, engineering, electronics, etc. At present, there are above 160 units in the organised sector with an installed capacity of 21, 00, 00 mt manufacturing different items, this accounts for 2.5 per cent of world ceramic production.

The important centres are Kolkata, Mumbai, Bengaluru, Delhi, Wankaner, Thanagarh, Ranipet, Rupnarainpur, Jabalpur, Nazarbagh, Gwalior, Jaipur, etc. Indian ceramic products are some of the best so far as their quality, shape, design and colour are concerned and are easily accepted in the international market.

The main buyers of Indian ceramic goods are Iran, Iraq, Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, Kenya, Uganda, Tanzania, Zambia, Sudan, Mauritius, Sri Lanka, Myanmar, etc. India also imports ceramic products from some European and Asian countries like China, Japan, U.K., Germany, the Netherlands, Czech Republic and Slovakia.

Dye Stuffs:

The Dyestuff sector is one of the important segments of chemical industry in India, having forward and backward linkages with a variety of sectors like textiles, leather, paper, plastics, printing inks and foodstuffs. The textile industry accounts for the largest consumption of dye stuffs at nearly 70%.

From being importers and distributors in the 1950s, it has now emerged as a very strong industry and major foreign exchange earner. India has emerged as a global supplier of dyestuff and dyes intermediates, particularly for reactive acid, vat and direct dyes. India accounts for 6 per cent of the global production of dyes.

Essay on the Agro-Climatic Regions of India

Several scholars have attempted to delineate the agricultural regions of India, the prominent being Tomer (1956), M.S. Randhawa (1958), Rama Chandran (1963), Miss P. Sengupta (1968) R.L. Singh (1971) and Jasbir Singh (1975).

Indian Council for Agricultural Research (ICAR) Zones:

The scheme suggested by ICAR is simple and comprehensive and is based on predominance of crops and crop association. India can be divided into following regions:

1. Rice-Jute-Tea Region:

This vast region includes lowlands, valleys and river deltas in the states of Assam, Arunachal Pradesh, Tripura, Meghalaya, West Bengal, Orissa, Northern and Eastern Bihar and Tarai region of U.P. Jute is mainly grown in the Hugli basin of West Bengal and same areas of Assam, Meghalaya, Tripura, Orissa and Tarai regions of U.P. Tea is mainly grown in Assam, Darjeeling, and Jalpaiguri areas of West Bengal and Tripura. Sugarcane and Tobacco are grown in Bihar.

2. Wheat and Sugarcane Region:

This region comprises northern Bihar, U.P., Punjab, Haryana, Western M.P. and north-eastern Rajasthan. Sugarcane is mainly grown in U.P. and contiguous parts of Bihar. The main wheat belt extends over Punjab, Haryana, Ganga, Yamuna, Doab of U.P. and north-eastern Rajasthan.

3. Cotton Region:

It spreads on the regur or black-cotton soil area of the Deccan piateau.

4. Maize and Coarse Crop Region:

Western Rajasthan and northern Gujarat are included in this region. Maize is mainly grown in the Mewar plateau where wheat and ragi are also produced. In the southern parts, rice, cotton and sugarcane are grown. Bajra is grown throughout the region.

5. Millets and Oilseeds Region:

This region includes areas of poor soils and broken topography in Karnataka plateau, parts of Tamil Nadu, southern Andhra Pradesh and Eastern Kerala. The millets includes bajra, ragi and jowar while the oilseeds grown are groundnut and castor.

6. Fruits and Vegetable Region:

This region extends from Kashmir valley in the West to Assam in the east. Apple, peach, cherries, plum, apricot are grown in the west while oranges are important in the east.

NRSA and Planning Commission’s Major Agro-Climatic Regions:

In order to plan agricultural activities more accurately each region (15 Resource Development Regions proposed by planning commission) into sub-regions based on soil, climate, temperature, Rainfall and other aerometerlogical characteristics. A total.127 agro- climatic zones have been identified in India under NARP based on a comprehensive research review of each state.

1. The North-Western Mountainous Region:

It covers the Himalayan region embracing Jammu- Kashmir, Himachal Pradesh and Garhwal-Kumaun of U.P. In the highly dissected and variegated relief exhibiting low altitude valleys to high altitude ridge flats, this region experiences wide variety of weather conditions at short vertical as well as horizontal distances.

The overall temperate and cool climatic condition with adequate moisture, supplemented by ‘Guls’ or hill canals that irrigate the terraces along the rivers even during summer, when the rest of India is scorched by the summer heat, make this region suitable for horticultural crops. Potato, tomato, cauliflower, cabbages, other green vegetables, may be profitably grown in these areas besides temperate fruits like apples.

The vast market for these products in the million cities and densely settled plains make this agriculture quite lucrative. However, the inaccessibility of cultivated areas excepting those with road side location and frost susceptibility during winter are major constraints compelling the majority of small peasants to grow only subsistence crops.

2. The North-Eastern Region:

The north-eastern region of the country makes another distinct agroclimatic region because, basically, of it’s per humid climate and although-the year growing season. It’s undulating terrain with gentle slopes, particularly on both sides of the Brahmputra, makes this region an ideal zone for growing tea.

Other crops like jute, pineapple and banana and a host of horticultural crops may also be grown. However, apart from tea hardly any cash crop is grown here because much of the area under cultivation is devoted to rice, the staple crop as the region is practically isolated from the rest of the country because of transportation difficulties. ‘

3. Lower Ganga Plain:

It covers the lower portion of West Bengal. The humid climate with high temperature althrough the year makes it suitable for growing rice and jute. This is virtually the jute belt of India. Along with these two major crops a wide variety of tropical fruits, namely, coconut, arecanut, jack fruit, etc. are grown mainly in an around the settlements. This region is quite suitable for pisciculture and aquaculture.

4. The Middle Ganga Plain:

This forms a transitional belt, between the upper and lower Ganga plain. The hot humid climate during the summer is eminently suitable for growing rice and wide array of Kharif crops: pulses (Arhar etc.) and vegetables as well as sugarcane as the annual cash crop.

The generally dry winter with occasional showers from western disturbances as well as adequate temprature allows the cultivation of wheat and several other pulses like Gram and oilseeds such as mustard and sun flower. A number of oxbow lakes on both sides of major tributaries of the Ganga provide ample opportunities for aquaculture.

A wide variety of fruits including mango, litchi, guava, banana, Amla maybe grown without much effort in this region endowed with fertile and thick alluvial soil of different structure and texture depending on location with reference to the rivers. This zone thus comprises a number of distinct subzones namely, the Terai, the Bangar, the Khadar, the Bhat and alkaline (usar) soil belts which account for the diversity of cropping patterns.

5. The Upper Ganga Plain:

This zone, lying to the west of the preceding one is distinguished by sub-humid climate with warmer summer and colder winter. The soil texture is generally coarser. It is therefore, pre-eminently suited for growing wheat and a host of other Rabi crops oil seeds, and pulses.

The Kharif crops mainly comprise the coarser variety viz. millets. Rice and sugar-cane cannot be grown without supplementary irrigation; excepting in the northern wetter Terai zone extending from Saharanpur- Bijnore to Lakhimpur-Kheri. It is also eminently suitable for growing fruits especially mango.

6. The Punjab Plain:

This zone is distinguished from the preceding one by greater aridity. In winter, there is comparatively more precipitation of western disturbance origin while the susceptibility to frost is also greater.

The summer crops in areas without supplementary irrigation are maize and Bajra while the winter crop mix is dominated by wheat and oilseeds especially mustard. Cotton may be profitably grown as a cash crop during Kharif season. All subtropical fruits may be grown without any difficulty. The easily growing fodder crops make this zone eminently suitable for dairy farms.

7. The South-Eastern Plateau:

This region extends from Bastar (Chhattisgarh) in the south to Dumka and Sahibganj (Jharkhand) in the north and Balaghat-Bhandara districts. (M.P.) in the west to Mayurbhanj (Orissa) in the east. It thus covers the whole of Chotanagpur plateau. Baghelkhand, Mahanadi basin and the Orissa plateau lying astride the tropic of Cancer, climatically; it is hot and humid receiving over 100 cms of rain annually.

However, the soil excepting the Mahanadi basin is generally leached red and poor in fertility. This region, thus, does not, by and large, constitute a prosperous agricultural belt. As the rainfall is seasonal confined to four monsoon months and the water drains away swiftly, this zone faces water scarcity through winter and summer months.

The scarce ground water in this zone of undulating plateau with hard rock substratitum is not easily exploitable, thus limiting severely the possibilities of irrigation excepting on very favourable valleys floors and constricted areas around tanks.

Thus, this zone is suitable for rice growing during the rainy season in favourable valleys and basins called ‘Dons’ in Chotanagpur while the uplands have to be left barren or may yield poor crops of pulses like Arhar’. During winter, Gram may be successfully grown wherever sufficient soil moisture is available during the sowing season viz. October.

8. Aravalli-Malwa Upland:

This region covers western MP and eastern Rajasthan east of the Aravallis. This is an area of moderate rain (50 to 100 cm.) occurring during the rainy season and covered for the most part by thin black soil. It is eminently suited for growing pulses, oilseeds and cotton besides millets and wheat among cereals.

Being subjected to high degree of rainfall variability which is extremely seasonal (July-Sept.) dry farming practices become essential if no facility for supplementary irrigation is available as is the case in the greater part of this region; Chambal canals now provide irrigation only in the north- central portion in the districts of Kota. Sawai Madhopur, Morena, Gwalior and Bhind. Ground water exploitation is limited due to hard rock formation underneath.

9. Maharashtra Plateau:

It covers whole of Maharashtra from the apex of Western Ghats eastward. It also extends northward into MP covering the hinterlands of Ujjain and Indore. This region resembles the proceeding one. The difference lies in the fact that, in this region, the black soil layer is very thick and the amount of rainfall decreases from west to east. Temperature is high (above 20°C) althrough the year and there is no possibility of frost.

The irrigation possibilities are quite limited. This region is eminently suited for the cultivation of cotton, pulses, and oilseeds. Sugarcane and fruit orchards (banana, grapes, oranges) flourish where irrigation facilities are available. Millets are grown as a staple crop on the uplands with dry farming.

10. The Deccan Interior:

This region covers a big area over Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Tamilnadu uplands from Adilabad district in the north to Madurai in the south, constitutes the heart of Deccan. It is generally a water scarce and drought prone region with hard granite-gneiss basement on which poor red soils have developed in favourable localities.

Only the north-western fringes are covered by thin veneer of black soil. Naturally this region is suitable intrinsically for growing Ragi and millets. Cotton, Groundnut, or other oilseeds may be grown in localities favoured with good soil and water conditions by practicing dry farming.

11. The East Coast:

The entire east coast extending from Balasore in the north-east to Kanyakumari in the south is included in this region. It is a humid region receiving over 100 cms. Of average annual rain with coastal alluvial soil of varying texture; from sandy to clayey. Rice is naturally the predominant crop; grown twice a year in favourable soil-rich localities such as coastal Orissa or Tamilnadu.

Banana coconut, arecanut grow profusely. Jute may grow as a cash crop in Orissa coast while sugar cane is grown extensively in Tamilnadu and coastal Andhra; the latter also grows tobacco in winter.

As a matter of fact this extensive region may be subdivided into three distinct sub regions of Circar coast, Andhra coast and Tamilnadu coast as each has different precipitation characteristics as well as soil texture. Aquaculture may be successfully developed all along the east coast which has ample water bodies available althrough the year.

12. The West Coast:

This perhumid region with high precipitation received from May through October is a zone of abundant water. It covers Konkan and Malabar coasts. It has the dominance of rice and coconut, besides a variety of spices, and cashew nuts are grown on the lower slopes of the Western Ghats while the higher reaches in Coorg are devoted to plantation crops of coffee and tea.

13. Gujarat:

The state of Gujarat is recognised as distinct agro-climatic region although it has distinct wet coastal and dry interior areas. The soil texture is also quite variable. The light soil of this region is suited to the growing of groundnut. Cotton and millets also find favourable conditions in this meteorological unit with 83 cms. of average annual rain received primarily (96.2%) during rainy season (June to September).

14. Western Rajasthan:

It covers the driest part of the country receiving meagre sporadic rain (33 cm). It has sandy soil fit only for growing millets (Bajra) .Oilseeds and pulses like Gran may be grown in highly favourable locales. The water made available from the Indira Gandhi Canal in Bikaner distt. has opened up the possibility of wheat and Orchard farming.

15. The Andaman-Nicobar Islands:

These Islands receiving copious rain and having hardly any winter season are highly suited for raising tropical crops like those grown in Malabar. However, the agricultural possibilities here are limited to the favourable littorals of the main Islands. The conditions here are more favourable to silviculture and aquaculture.

From the methodological view point these regions suffer from several limitations viz, use of unspecified parameters and hence several paradoxes especially in the inclusion of contrasting features in VIII through XIIIth regions.

Impact of Climate Change on Agriculture of India – Essay

Developing countries will be more affected by climatic change because they depend more on climate-sensitive sectors like agriculture, forestry or fishing. Under an enhanced green house condition, the variability of Monsoon is projected to increase resulting in recurring droughts or floods, which will affect agricultural production and increase the vulnerability of the large agrarian population, climatic change is likely to affect the country’s national resource base, with major implication for agriculture and forestry sectors and huge impacts in coastal regions.

Agriculture and its allied activities constitute a significant proportion of the energy, contributing to nearly 19% of the total gross domestic product (GDP). The tremendous importance of agriculture to the Indian economy can be gauged by the fact that more than 60% of the work force is dependent on this sector. Besides, the share of agriculture products in export earning is also substantial.

Agriculture thereby has a direct impact on poverty and is an important factor in employment generation, global warming is predicted to affect agricultural production. In the tropics and sub-tropics with prevailing high temperature, crops are already growing at a particular threshold where dryland, non-irrigated agriculture dominates.

Agricultural productivity is sensitive to two broad classes of climate induced effects—direct effects from change in temperature, precipitation, radiation or carbon dioxide concentrations, and indirect effects through changes in soils and the distribution and frequency of infestation by pests and disease.

However, much depends not only on the physiological response of the affected plant, but also on the ability of the affected socio-economic systems of production to cope with changes in yields and in the frequency of droughts or floods. The adaptability of farmers in India is severely restricted by heavy reliance on natural factors and lack of complimentary inputs and institutional support systems.

Need for Sustainable Agriculture:

For a country like India, sustainable agricultural development is essential not only to meet the food demands, but also for poverty reduction through economic growth by creating employment opportunities in non-agricultural rural sectors. There is a pressing need to strengthen the capacity of communities to cope effectively with both climatic variability and change.

In this sense, easy access to agricultural credits, insurance coverage, and expanding area under irrigation is very important. Role of science and technology cannot be ignored. This includes the need for appropriate technologies including setting up of an early warning system to prevent loss.

Biotechnology could also contribute. Therefore, despite the complexities that climatic change poses to the agricultural sector in India, there is a lot of opportunities in leveraging the right kind of technologies and policies that reduce the losses and contribute in improving the livelihoods of millions.

Essay on Controlling Population Explosion in India (1069 Words)

Now to control this present population problem of India, broadly four-fold measures would be much required: (a) economic measures, (b) social measures, (c) family planning measures and (d) administrative measures.

Economic Measures:

To contain the pace of growth of population in India economic measures can offer a permanent solution to the problem. Considering the gravity of the situation, the most of the economic measures require being included are long-term in nature. These are as follows:

1. Modernization of Agriculture:

In India, the primitive method of agriculture is still being followed in various parts of the country which needs to be replaced by better methods. Thus modernized improved methods should be introduced in the agricultural operations throughout the country for raising its productivity.

Increased agricultural productivity will raise the total agricultural production of the country which in turn can support this increasing size of population of the country. This increased agricultural production can also raise the standard of living of the rural people which will again reduce the birth rate indirectly.

2. Industrial Development:

As the agricultural sector of the country is over burdened with huge population pressure thus industrialization can transfer this surplus working force from agriculture to other sectors.

Moreover, growing industrial activity can also increase the urge of industrial workers to raise their standard of living which in turn will motivate them to restrict the size of their family. Thus the Government should undertake some radical measures for rapid industrialization of the country.

3. Urbanisation and More Employment Opportunities in Urban Areas:

Steps must be taken for the growth of urban centres in the country along with the creation of more job opportunities in these urban areas. This will lead to migration of population from rural to urban areas which will indirectly work as a powerful check on the growth of population in India.

4. Removal of Poverty and Ensuring Minimum Economic Amenities:

Poor people normally remain unconcerned about limiting the size of their families. Thus proper steps should be taken by the Government for the removal of poverty in India. Once the poor people are assured of basic economic amenities of life their attitudes towards their families will also undergo a sea change. Thus the Government has got a responsibility to guarantee the right to work and ensure a minimum wage to everyone.

Social Measures:

Population explosion is also resulted from some social evils. Thus to check population growth in India following social measures are to be undertaken:

1. Postponement of the Marriage:

The raising of the minimum age of marriage both through legislation and arousing consciousness can play an effective role in checking population growth by reducing the effective child-bearing period and particularly knocking off the most fertile period from the point of child bearing.

2. Spread of education:

Spread of education can play an effective role in checking the growth rate of population in India. Education and general enlightenment of the people can create desire for smaller families. Education can make a frontal attack on superstitions and orthodoxy and also induces people to go for late marriage and to adopt family planning norms.

3. Improving the Status of Women:

In India women, more particularly rural women, are enjoying a very poor social status. Although the constitution of the country guaranteed equal status for men and women but a high degree of discrimination between them still prevails leading to a growth of family size. Increasing employment of women and the improvement of their social status can effectively reduce the birth rate of population in India.

Family Planning Measures:

Family Planning measures can play an effective role in controlling population explosion in India. In China, the Family Planning Programme has been successful in bringing down the birth rate to 21 per thousand at present whereas it is 31 per thousand in India. This has become possible through widespread use of contraceptives as nearly 74 per cent of married women of child bearing age use contraceptives in China. The following are some of the family planning measures which are very important in Indian context:

1. Arousing Consciousness:

Through public information programme, people of India should be made more conscious about the usefulness of family planning programme. All media of publicity should be used for this purpose.

2. Family Planning Centres:

Opening of family planning centers throughout the country can play an effective role in limiting the size of family. The Health Department must put much emphasis on setting up family planning clinics for spreading knowledge about the use of contraceptives and other methods of birth control. Moreover a good number of contraceptive distribution centers should be established both in the urban as well as rural areas of the country.

3. Research:

In the family planning programme of India more importance by stressed on conducting research in the area like demography, reproductive biology, fertility control etc.

Administrative Measures:

Present situation in connection with population expositions in India demands some hard administrative measures.

1. Introduction of Two-child Norm:

The government of India should approve the two-child norm and put severe restrictions on limiting the size of family as it is done in China.

2. Incentives and Disincentives:

The Government should introduce various incentive schemes for adopting small family norm such as cash incentive, preference for employment, preference for promotion etc. likewise, in respect of the violation of family planning norms, disincentive schemes should be introduced for withdrawing these incentives totally.

3. To Stop Influx of Population:

A significant portion of the increase in the population of the country is due to continuous immigration of population from the neighbouring countries. Thus this influx of population in the form of infiltration should be stopped completely and proper steps should be devised to check this large scale infiltration.

These steps include sealing of international border, creation of no-man’s land, increased patrolling, and imposition of night curfew on border areas and to tone up border administration effectively. Thus to control this high rate of growth of population in India all the above-mentioned four-fold measures should be introduced simultaneously.

Essay on Rural-Urban Composition of Population in India (857 Words)

At per the Census 2011, there are 468 Class I towns. 264.9 million Persons, constituting 70.1 of the total urban population live Class I towns. Among the million – plus cities, there are three very large cities with more than 10 million persons in the country. These are Greater Mumbai UA (18.4 million) Delhi UA (16.3 million) and Kolkata UA (14.1 million).

The vast majority of the population of India has always lived in the rural areas and that continues to be true, the 2001 Census found that 72% of our population still lives in villages, while 28% is living in cities and towns. However the urban population has been increasing its share steadily from about 11% at the beginning of the twentieth century to about 28% at the beginning of 21st century.

Process of modern development ensures that the economic and social significance of the agrarian rural way of life denies relation to the significance of the industrial-urban way of life. This has been broadly true all over the world and true in India as well. While the majority of our people lives in the rural areas and makes their living out of agriculture, the relative economic value of what they produces has fallen drastically.

Moreover more and more people who live in villages may no longer work in agriculture or even in villages, Rural people are increasingly, engaged in non-farm rural occupation like transport services, business enterprises or craft manufacturing.

If they are close enough, then they may travel daily to the nearest urban Centre to work while continuing to live in village. Mass media and communication channels are now bringing images of urban-life styles and patterns of consumption into the rural areas. Consequently urban norms and standards are becoming well-known even in the remote villages, creating new desires and aspirations for consumption.

Considered from an urban point of view, the rapid growth is combination shows that the town or city has been acting as a magnet for the rural population. Those who cannot work in the rural areas go to the city in search of work.

This flow of rural-to-urban migration has also been accelerated by the continuous decline of common property resource like ponds, forests and grazing lands. If people no longer have access to these resources, but on the other hand have to buy many things in the market that they used to get free, and then their hardship increases. This hardship is worsened by the fact that opportunities for earning cash income are limited in the villages.

Sometimes the city may also be preferred for social reasons, especially the relative anonymity it offers. The fact that urban life involves interaction with strangers can be an advantage for different reasons.

For the socially oppressed groups like the SC & STs, this may offer some partial protection from the daily humiliation they may suffer in the village where everyone knows lower caste identity. The anonymity of the city also allows the poorer sections of the socially dominant rural groups to engage in low status work that they would not be able to do in the village. All these reasons make the city an attractive destination for the villages.

A high proportion of rural population implies that the economy is still heavily dependent on agriculture and the traditional social order is still intact. The states of Bihar, M.P., Orissa and Rajasthan are largely under-developed and industrialization has not resulted in urbanization on any significant scale. Among the major states, Tamil Nadu is the most urbanized with 44% of its population living in urban areas, followed by Maharashtra, Gujarat, Karnataka and West Bengal.

In all these states the proportion of urban population to total population is higher than the national average of 27.8%. Goa with 49.8 per cent of the population lives in urban areas has the first rank of urbanization followed by Mizoram (49.6%), and Himachal Pradesh has the lowest rank of urbanization with 9.8%. According to Census 2001, the urban centres have been categorized into the following six population size classes of town.

It is clear from above that there is an increase in population nearly in all classes of town except class VI. While urbanization has been occurring at a rapid pace, it is the biggest cities – the metropolises – that have been growing the fastest.

These metros attract migrants from the rural areas as well as from small towns. These are now 5,161 towns and cities are India where 286 million people live. What is striking; however is that more than two-thirds of the urban population lives in 27 big cities with million-plus populations? Clearly the largest cities in India are growing at such a rapid rate that the urban infrastructure can hardly keep pace.